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经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Typology of Construction Goods

The goal for developing a typology is to provide a framework that allows us to explain and understand phenomena in the construction sector. Looking into a systematic order of construction projects is of a conceptual nature and it means advancing a theoretical contribution. Systematic orders are fundamental elements in the development of a scientific body of knowledge (McKelvey 1975). The lack of a theoretical background of existing orders such as the categorization in Table 13.1 makes this development necessary. A very simple example of an existing categorization is the well-known differentiation between residential, industrial, building, and civil engineering projects (Barrie and Paulson 1992; similar Langford and Male 2001). The group of building projects comprises offices, churches, sports arenas, opera houses, and universities. What do they have in common? Theoretical contributions need to identify building blocks (what), relations (how), and underlying dynamics (why). The reasoning (why) is of special importance because logic replaces data as the basis for an evaluation (Whetten 1989).

There are four forms of systematic orders on hand: nomenclatures, classifications, taxonomies, and typologies. Nomenclatures in science describe systems of designations. Examples are NACE (French: Nomenclature statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté européenne), the statistical framework in the EU, or ISIC (International Standard Industrial Classification), as proposed by the United Nations. Nomenclature as a system of designation is nothing more than a series of nominalist definitions. Theory is not the base of nomenclatures – they have neither truth values nor empirical content but they can be practical.

We create classification systems by assigning objects or phenomena to specific classes according to predetermined criteria (similarity or relationships) and decision rules; a hierarchy (Doty and Glick 1994) characterizes them and they are precise, complete, and disjunctive (not overlapping).

If natural laws provide the basis of a classification, then it becomes a taxonomy. The most widely known is the systematic order of plants (Linnaean taxonomy).

Archetypes are the components of typologies. Categories of typologies are precise (however, the assignment is imprecise), complete but not clearly disjunctive. Unambiguous decision rules for the assignment are not possible. We can distinguish different characteristics for these four systematic orders (Table 13.8).

Clearly, either a classification or a taxonomy would be preferable, as they are most stringent. Unfortunately, construction projects do not follow the order of natural laws: establishing a taxonomy is impossible. A classification, on the other hand, poses problems when the population that it tries to capture is continuous. Project size measured in monetary units would result in placing two construction projects that differ by the amount of one dollar into different classes: Establishing a classification is undesirable. Some fuzziness about the categories will prove beneficial. In sum, a typology of construction projects promises the best results.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Choice of Dimensions

Starting point for the selection of possible dimensions for the construction industry are publications analyzing organizations and their tasks. In this business context, authors distinguish between task and resource dimensions. Tasks can be difficult, variable, interdependent, complex, and novel, or easy, routine, independent, simple, and repetitive. Resources can be specific or generic.

Difficulty: It is not easy to analyze a difficult task. Algorithms for solutions are unknown (Van de Ven and Delbecq 1974). Perrow (1967) describes difficulty as the degree of complexity of the search process in performing the task, the amount of thinking time required, and the body of knowledge that provides guidelines for performing the tasks. The underlying theory is task contingency – a special form of contingency theory, i.e. the idea that tasks determine the structure of an organization (Fiedler 1964). This holds also true for the next two dimensions: variability and interdependency.

Variability: Tasks with a great variability demand use of a multitude of different approaches (Perrow 1967).

Interdependency: We can differentiate between interdependency within and between teams. It is high when either many members of a team or many teams need to interact for the solution of a problem. A high interdependency increases the demands for coordination (Tushman 1979).
Complexity: Complex tasks can be broken down into many parts, and there are many connections between the parts possible. A third component of complexity is the crossimpact of decisions, the question of consequences for the system. When many decisions entail important consequences, we face a high complexity. Multiple parts, interactions, and consequences create uncertainty when solving a problem (Tushman and Nadler 1978). Complexity belongs to a theory that interprets organizations mainly as information processing and decision-making entities. It also plays an important role in systems theory (Luhmann 2013).

Novelty: Novel tasks are the opposite of repetitive tasks; the degree of novelty to the actor defines the dimension (Puddicombe 2011). For their solution, we first need to develop new structures and then new algorithms. Repetitive tasks are already pre-structured. The construct of novelty also belongs into the realm of contingency theory.

Resource specificity: Of high importance are human, asset, location, and temporal specificity. High resource specificity describes high-quality demands in these areas (Williamson 1991). Using the concept of opportunity cost, we can state that resources are very specific if the difference to the second-best alternative is especially high (Williamson 1985). He introduced this term as part of the theory of governance costs. I have now identified six dimensions of construction projects. Difficulty, complexity, novelty, and resource specificity are rather independent of each other. However, variability and interdependence are strongly affecting complexity with regard to the number of parts and their interrelationships. If we subsume these two dimensions under complexity, we get a scheme with four dimensions determining a construction project (Figure 13.5).

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Typology of Construction Goods

开发类型学的目标是提供一个框架,使我们能够解释和理解建筑领域的现象。研究建设项目的系统顺序具有概念性,意味着推进理论贡献。系统秩序是科学知识体系发展的基本要素(McKelvey 1975)。现有订单缺乏理论背景,例如表 13.1 中的分类,因此有必要进行此开发。现有分类的一个非常简单的例子是众所周知的住宅、工业、建筑和土木工程项目之间的区别(Barrie 和 Paulson 1992;类似于 Langford 和 Male 2001)。这组建筑项目包括办公室、教堂、运动场、歌剧院和大学。他们有什么共同点?理论贡献需要确定构建块(什么)、关系(如何)和潜在动力(为什么)。推理(为什么)特别重要,因为逻辑取代了数据作为评估的基础(Whetten 1989)。

手头有四种形式的系统命令:命名法、分类法、分类法和类型学。科学中的术语描述了名称系统。例如,欧盟的统计框架 NACE(法语:Nomenclature statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté européenne)或联合国提议的 ISIC(国际标准工业分类)。作为名称系统的命名法只不过是一系列唯名论定义。理论不是命名法的基础——它们既没有真值也没有经验内容,但它们可以是实用的。

我们通过根据预先确定的标准(相似性或关系)和决策规则将对象或现象分配给特定类别来创建分类系统;层次结构(Doty 和 Glick 1994)是它们的特征,它们是精确的、完整的和分离的(不重叠)。

如果自然规律提供了分类的基础,那么它就成为分类学。最广为人知的是植物的系统顺序(林奈分类法)。

原型是类型学的组成部分。类型学的类别是精确的(但是,分配是不精确的),完整但没有明显的分离。分配的明确决策规则是不可能的。我们可以区分这四个系统命令的不同特征(表 13.8)。

显然,分类法或分类法更可取,因为它们最严格。不幸的是,建设项目不遵循自然法则:建立分类法是不可能的。另一方面,当分类试图捕获的总体是连续的时,就会出现问题。以货币单位衡量的项目规模将导致将两个相差一美元的建设项目分为不同的类别:建立分类是不可取的。对类别的一些模糊将被证明是有益的。总而言之,建筑项目的类型学有望获得最佳结果。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Choice of Dimensions

为建筑行业选择可能维度的起点是分析组织及其任务的出版物。在此业务上下文中,作者区分了任务维度和资源维度。任务可以是困难的、多变的、相互依赖的、复杂的和新颖的,也可以是简单的、例行的、独立的、简单的和重复的。资源可以是特定的或通用的。

难度:分析一个困难的任务并不容易。解决方案的算法是未知的(Van de Ven 和 Delbecq 1974)。Perrow (1967) 将难度描述为执行任务时搜索过程的复杂程度、所需的思考时间以及为执行任务提供指南的知识体系。基本理论是任务偶然性——一种特殊形式的偶然性理论,即任务决定组织结构的观点(Fiedler 1964)。这也适用于接下来的两个维度:可变性和相互依赖性。

可变性:具有很大可变性的任务需要使用多种不同的方法(Perrow 1967)。

相互依赖:我们可以区分团队内部和团队之间的相互依赖。当一个团队的许多成员或许多团队需要交互以解决问题时,它就很高。高度的相互依赖增加了对协调的需求(Tushman 1979)。
复杂性:复杂的任务可以分解成很多部分,并且各部分之间可能存在很多联系。复杂性的第三个组成部分是决策的交叉影响,即系统后果问题。当许多决定带来重要后果时,我们面临着高度的复杂性。在解决问题时,多个部分、相互作用和结果会产生不确定性(Tushman 和 Nadler 1978)。复杂性属于一种将组织主要解释为信息处理和决策实体的理论。它还在系统理论中发挥着重要作用(Luhmann 2013)。

新颖性:新颖性任务与重复性任务相反;演员的新颖程度定义了维度 (Puddicombe 2011)。对于他们的解决方案,我们首先需要开发新的结构,然后再开发新的算法。重复性任务已经预先安排好。新颖性的建构也属于权变理论的范畴。

资源特异性:最重要的是人员、资产、位置和时间特异性。高资源专用性描述了这些领域的高质量需求(Williamson 1991)。使用机会成本的概念,如果与次优选择的差异特别大,我们可以说资源是非常特殊的(Williamson 1985)。他将这个术语作为治理成本理论的一部分引入。我现在已经确定了建设项目的六个维度。难度、复杂性、新颖性和资源专用性是相互独立的。然而,可变性和相互依赖性在很大程度上影响了部件数量及其相互关系的复杂性。如果我们将这两个维度归入复杂性,我们将得到一个包含四个维度的方案来确定一个建设项目(图 13.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考

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