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经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Characteristics of Markets

The following discussions are a concise repetition of Chapter 5 on perfect and Chapter 6 on imperfect markets. For most economic discussions, perfect competition is the case in point as we have already discussed. This serves to develop basic economic models that can later be adjusted to models of monopoly (monopsony) or oligopoly (oligopsony). The most important characteristic of perfectly competitive markets is that both, sellers and buyers, are price takers. They must accept the market prices that arise from supply and demand. In all other cases, either the seller or the buyer can influence the price to a certain degree. More common than perfectly competitive markets are oligopolies or monopolistic competition. The latter term describes a situation where many sellers and buyers are active in a market and where the sellers try successfully to differentiate their products. This is one of the goals in branding. An adherent to a specific brand faces a single seller (i.e., if you like sneakers from Adidas, then Nike is not a competition). In sum, perfect competition is good for understanding theory but not so good for understanding real market situations.

The business cycle also influences market power in a given configuration. In a boom, typically demand exceeds supply with the consequence of rising prices. As long as this situation endures, sellers can reap higher profits. At the same time, sellers will expand their production possibilities and new entries to the market provide additional supply. After some time, supply and demand will balance and extra profits are no longer possible. This describes another characteristic of perfect competition: Market entry and exit (in a recession) are easy.

Tirole (2000, p. 6) describes a perfectly competitive market based on Arrow and Debreu as follows: “The model starts with a fine description of available goods. An economic good is characterized by its physical properties, the date on which and the nature in which it is available, its location, and so forth. Consumers are perfectly informed about all goods’ properties and have preferences over bundles of goods. Producers (firms), which are owned by consumers, are endowed with production possibility sets. A paradigm of market organization is added. All agents are price takers. The consumers maximize their welfare given that the expenditures must not exceed their income. .. This gives rise to demand functions. . Producers maximize profits over their technological possibilities, giving rise to supply functions. . A competitive equilibrium is a set of prices, with associated demands and supplies, such that all markets (one for each good) clear (i.e. total demand does not exceed total supply)”.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Analysis of Construction Markets

Markets are not physical objects like gravity or electro-magnetism; markets are social phenomena. Roth (2015), a winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2012, distinguishes between commodity and matching markets. Prices (as well as supply and demand) govern commodity markets while matching markets require different mechanisms.

In the times of barter economies, all markets were matching markets. If someone wanted a pair of shoes and had meat to offer, it was necessary to find exactly such a match. Money made commodity markets possible and historically rules developed around these. Typical matching markets today are labor markets where talent, skills, and commitment are often more important than price. A move in the direction of matching markets includes partnering contracts in construction. Another clearly designed matching market used to be the one for architects and engineers.

According to Roth (2015) markets should be thick. That is, there is plenty of choice, without being congested. They should also be flexible, reliable, safe, and simple.

Construction markets were typically matching markets: Owners always had special needs and a master builder used to provide special skills. Roman roads and aqueducts as well as medieval churches and palaces are the result. When construction became more ubiquitous with ordinary people being able to afford more elaborate homes or entrepreneurs offices and buildings, it became customary to split design and execution. The design market remained to a certain degree a matching market, but construction became a commodity market. Two steps were necessary. Design separation homogenized the works. Instead of 10 contractors offering different designs, there was only 1 , and in addition, owners took the mental step to standardize the execution by disregarding the influence of process quality.
There are all kinds of different procurement approaches (market designs). Design/build contracts untie the homogenization of design, partnering introduces the possibility of different process qualities provided by contractors. The same holds true for performancebased contracting. However, in all cases, it is the owner who creates a market design when drafting the construction contract.

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Characteristics of Markets

以下讨论是对第 5 章完美市场和第 6 章不完美市场的简要重复。对于大多数经济讨论,完全竞争就是我们已经讨论过的例子。这有助于开发基本的经济模型,这些模型以后可以调整为垄断(monopsony)或寡头垄断(oligopsony)模型。完全竞争市场最重要的特征是买卖双方都是价格接受者。他们必须接受由供求关系产生的市场价格。在所有其他情况下,卖方或买方都可以在一定程度上影响价格。比完全竞争市场更常见的是寡头垄断或垄断竞争。后一个术语描述了这样一种情况,即许多卖家和买家活跃在市场上,并且卖家试图成功地使他们的产品脱颖而出。这是品牌的目标之一。特定品牌的拥护者面对单一卖家(即,如果您喜欢阿迪达斯的运动鞋,那么耐克就不是竞争对手)。总之,完全竞争有利于理解理论,但不利于理解真实的市场情况。

商业周期也会影响给定配置中的市场力量。在繁荣时期,通常会因价格上涨而供不应求。只要这种情况持续下去,卖家就可以获得更高的利润。与此同时,卖家将扩大他们的生产可能性,新的市场进入将提供额外的供应。一段时间后,供需平衡,不再有额外的利润。这描述了完全竞争的另一个特征:市场进入和退出(在经济衰退时)很容易。

Tirole (2000, p. 6) 基于 Arrow 和 Debreu 描述了一个完全竞争的市场如下:“该模型从对可用商品的精细描述开始。经济商品的特征在于其物理属性、可用日期和性质、位置等。消费者完全了解所有商品的属性,并且对商品捆绑有偏好。消费者拥有的生产者(公司)被赋予了生产可能性集。添加了市场组织范式。所有代理商都是价格接受者。考虑到支出不得超过收入,消费者会最大化他们的福利。.. 这就产生了需求函数。. 生产者通过其技术可能性最大化利润,从而产生供应函数。.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Analysis of Construction Markets

市场不是重力或电磁力之类的物理对象;市场是社会现象。2012 年诺贝尔经济学奖获得者罗斯(2015 年)区分了商品市场和匹配市场。价格(以及供需)支配着商品市场,而匹配市场则需要不同的机制。

在易货经济时代,所有市场都是匹配市场。如果有人想要一双鞋并且有肉可以提供,则必须找到这样的匹配。金钱使商品市场成为可能,并且历史上围绕这些市场制定了规则。今天典型的匹配市场是人才、技能和承诺往往比价格更重要的劳动力市场。向匹配市场方向发展的举措包括在建筑领域签订合作合同。另一个设计明确的配对市场曾经是建筑师和工程师的市场。

根据 Roth (2015) 的说法,市场应该很厚。也就是说,有很多选择,而不是拥挤。它们还应该灵活、可靠、安全和简单。

建筑市场通常是匹配市场:业主总是有特殊需求,建筑大师通常会提供特殊技能。结果是罗马道路和渡槽以及中世纪的教堂和宫殿。当建筑变得越来越普遍,普通人能够负担得起更精致的房屋或企业家的办公室和建筑物时,将设计和执行分开就成了习惯。设计市场在一定程度上仍然是匹配市场,但建筑成为商品市场。需要两个步骤。设计分离使作品同质化。而不是 10 个承包商提供不同的设计,只有 1 个,此外,业主通过忽略过程质量的影响采取心理步骤来标准化执行。
有各种不同的采购方法(市场设计)。设计/建造合同解除了设计的同质化,合作引入了承包商提供不同过程质量的可能性。这同样适用于基于绩效的合同。但是,在所有情况下,都是业主在起草施工合同时创造了市场设计。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考

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