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经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|The Contractor as an Entity

Construction firms range from very small one-man firms to global players such as China State Construction Engineering Corporation with a revenue of 235 billion USD in 2020 as the world’s largest construction firm with a profit on turnover of 1.5\% (Fortune 2021). The wide range of the phenomenon construction firm makes it again necessary to define a typical case, and this will be neither the one-man firm nor China State. The typical case depends on the choice of the owner, whether he lets a single contract to a general contractor or many different contracts to specialty contractors. A general contractor takes responsibility for coordinating and delivering all construction activities. For this purpose, the general contractor relies on the help of many specialty contractors. Figure 12.1 shows a general contractor who completes the structural works with his own workforce and all other works with the help of subcontractors.

Owners often decide to choose a general contractor. They also can opt to employ management contracting where the management firm controls all construction activities (Greenhalgh and Squires 2011). In such an arrangement, it is also possible that the owner himself takes the role of managing all construction works (Figure 12.2). Sometimes, owners even provide important equipment and supplies. In such a case, it seems to be justified to speak of an employer instead of an owner. This setup shows how powerful the role of an owner can become by his own choice.

Each way of organizing the construction project has certain advantages and disadvantages. Of economic importance is the power distribution between owner and contractor and again, there is no way of characterizing the owner has David who faces a Goliath in form of one or more construction firms. I will take the organization with a general contractor (Figure 12.1) as exemplary for the following discussions. In such a case, the owner and the general contractor team up to complete the construction works, albeit with contradicting economic goals: Own utility versus own profit maximizing. This is a zero-sum game; one’s gains will be the other’s losses.

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Tasks of the Contractor

We have seen that the owner develops the product design together with architects and engineers and that he determines via the contract the construction period. For submitting a bid, the contractor can only optimize the construction process. He must find the cost minimum for a given construction period (Figure 12.5). Each contractor will find a somewhat different process technology and one of these will have a cost minimum at the contractually stipulated time or be close to it. In Figure 12.5, firm B has found a technology with the cost minimum for the contract period. A technology also has a fixed set of resources (labor, materials, equipment). From one singular project to the next there will be adaptations to the technology. Even in the case of consecutive projects of the same type, there might be some technological advances, these are innovations with the goal to lower the costs. With the product design provided by the owner, only process innovations are possible for the contractor and these can only have the goal of cost minimization. A contractor who delivers a higher quality than defined by the contract through advanced technology is not maximizing profits and thus acts not rational.

Figure 12.5 suggests that the most innovative contractor with the most suitable technology for the project will win the contract. This would be the ideal economic result. Unfortunately, contractors are not able to estimate the contract price correctly and they have no idea about the exact shape of the cost curve. In the worst case, the contractor with the largest estimating error will come out on top of the bidding contest. Instead of the smartest firm winning the contract, this will be the most erroneous. The whole sector including the owner is suffering from this problem.

博弈论代考

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|The Contractor as an Entity

建筑公司从非常小的单人公司到全球企业,例如中国建筑工程总公司,2020 年的收入为 2350 亿美元,是世界上最大的建筑公司,营业额利润为 1.5%(《财富》2021 年)。现象建筑公司的广泛范围使得再次定义一个典型案例成为必要,这既不是一个人的公司也不是中国建筑。典型案例取决于业主的选择,他是将一份合同交给总承包商,还是将许多不同的合同交给专业承包商。总承包商负责协调和交付所有施工活动。为此,总承包商依赖许多专业承包商的帮助。图 12。

业主通常决定选择总承包商。他们还可以选择采用管理合同,管理公司控制所有施工活动(Greenhalgh 和 Squires 2011)。在这样的安排中,业主自己也可能承担管理所有建筑工程的角色(图 12.2)。有时,业主甚至会提供重要的设备和用品。在这种情况下,谈论雇主而不是所有者似乎是合理的。此设置显示所有者的角色可以通过自己的选择变得多么强大。

每种组织建设项目的方式都有一定的优点和缺点。具有经济重要性的是业主和承包商之间的权力分配,而且,没有办法描述业主拥有面对一个或多个建筑公司形式的歌利亚的大卫。我将以具有总承包商的组织(图 12.1)为例进行以下讨论。在这种情况下,业主和总承包商合作完成建筑工程,尽管经济目标相互矛盾:自身效用与自身利润最大化。这是一个零和游戏;一个人的收益将是另一个人的损失。

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考|Tasks of the Contractor

我们看到业主与建筑师和工程师一起开发产品设计,并通过合同确定工期。对于投标,承包商只能优化施工过程。他必须找到给定施工期的最低成本(图 12.5)。每个承包商都会发现略有不同的工艺技术,其中之一将在合同规定的时间或接近该时间达到最低成本。在图 12.5 中,B 公司找到了合同期内成本最低的技术。一项技术也有一套固定的资源(劳动力、材料、设备)。从一个项目到下一个项目,都会对技术进行调整。即使在同一类型的连续项目的情况下,也可能会有一些技术进步,这些都是旨在降低成本的创新。对于业主提供的产品设计,承包商只能进行工艺创新,而这些只能以成本最小化为目标。通过先进技术提供高于合同定义的质量的承包商并没有实现利润最大化,因此行为不理性。

图 12.5 表明,具有最适合项目技术的最具创新性的承包商将赢得合同。这将是理想的经济结果。不幸的是,承包商无法正确估算合同价格,也不知道成本曲线的确切形状。在最坏的情况下,估计错误最大的承包商将在投标竞赛中名列前茅。这不是最聪明的公司赢得合同,而是最错误的公司。包括所有者在内的整个部门都在遭受这个问题。

经济代写|博弈论代写Game Theory代考

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