相信许多留学生对数学代考都不陌生,国外许多大学都引进了网课的学习模式。网课学业有利有弊,学生不需要到固定的教室学习,只需要登录相应的网站研讨线上课程即可。但也正是其便利性,线上课程的数量往往比正常课程多得多。留学生课业深重,时刻名贵,既要学习知识,又要结束多种类型的课堂作业,physics作业代写,物理代写,论文写作等;网课考试很大程度增加了他们的负担。所以,您要是有这方面的困扰,不要犹疑,订购myassignments-help代考渠道的数学代考服务,价格合理,给你前所未有的学习体会。

我们的数学代考服务适用于那些对课程结束没有掌握,或许没有满足的时刻结束网课的同学。高度匹配专业科目,按需结束您的网课考试、数学代写需求。担保买卖支持,100%退款保证,免费赠送Turnitin检测报告。myassignments-help的Math作业代写服务,是你留学路上忠实可靠的小帮手!


经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Instability and Empirical Research in Klein’s Work

Klein finished his undergraduate studies at Berkeley, where he studied economics, mathematics and statistics at one of the only places where he could follow mathematical economics classes (Klein and Mariano, 1987: 410). He studied in particular mathematics under the students of Griffith Evans, economics with Leo Rogin who introduced him to Keynesian economics and statistics with Jerzy Neyman. ${ }^{27}$ After a summer internship estimating the demand for California lemons with George Kuznets (the brother of the Nobel Prize winner), he transferred to MIT for his graduate studies, where he became Samuelson’s assistant (Klein and Mariano, 1987: 411) and eventually his first $\mathrm{PhD}$ student. His background in statistics, but also in economic theory and his knowledge of Keynesian economics led him to connect with the burgeoning group of economists working in New York, Cambridge (Massachusetts) and Chicago on econometric issues and mathematical economics. At MIT, he organized a statistical seminar where he managed to invite, among others, Haavelmo, Wald and Hotelling, in addition to his doctoral advisor Samuelson, and the latter’s former professor at Harvard, E. B. Wilson (Klein, 1991).

Klein was also the heir of Hansen, Pigou and Samuelson on the issue of the existence and stability of full employment, and he went a long way to clarify the different arguments with the help of economic models. ${ }^{28}$ This was the work he began in his $1944 \mathrm{PhD}$ thesis (Klein, 1944), which was published in 1947 as The Keynesian Revolution (1947a), and which helped him get noticed by Marschak, when he presented parts of it at the 1944 Cleveland Meeting of the Econometric Society (Hurwicz et al., 1945: 84-85). That paper favorably impressed Marschak who chaired the session and was looking for a young able economist to develop the modeling program that he was launching at the time. Marschak, Koopmans, Hurwicz and Klein discussed the idea of recruiting Klein at the Cowles Commission at a dinner during the last day of the meeting (Bjerkholt, 2014), and eventually Klein chose to join the Commission where he produced his first macroeconometric work.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Economic Barometers and “Cumulation”

The hunt for mechanisms responsible for cyclical fluctuations was clearly visible in Tinbergen’s first published article, where he recognized the importance of Aftalion’s theory of crisis, one of the few that was able, in his view, to account for the fact that “in each cycle there is already the seed for the next one” (Tinbergen, 1927: 715). But Tinbergen did not build a model of the economy in this article, which was aimed at the readers of De Economist to inform them of the latest developments in statistical and mathematical economics and business cycle analysis. At this time, what this covered was essentially the latest debates around the barometers, and the critiques they were subjected to.

One debate in particular interested Tinbergen, it was the “new interpretation” of Karl Karsten which had been discussed-among others-by Warren Persons and Alvin Hansen. Karsten was the main proponent in the 1920s of the “quadrature theory,” which had been developed by Charles Edge in 1908 (Karsten, 1924: 14). Being in “quadrature,” a term borrowed from electrical engineering, meant that the fluctuations of one curve corresponded to the fluctuations of the cumulation of another curve, or in other terms, its integral. ${ }^2$ For Karsten, the main advantage of this approach was to show how to obtain cycles of different length or amplitude: “By the quadrature theory, it seems possible to interpret the various phases of the economic cycle as entirely orderly and in accordance with theory, and yet wholly irregular in point of time” (Karsten, 1924: 16).

It was on the basis of this theory that Karsten suggested a new interpretation of the Harvard Business Index in Karsten (1926). While in the “official” interpretation of the barometer, the A curve (speculation) preceded and caused the B curve (production), Karsten thought that the second curve was in fact the causal predecessor of the first and the real driver of the cycle. His theoretical argument was that what counted was not so much business conditions represented by the B curve but the flow of money into the markets that accompanied poor business conditions and inversely the flow of money toward business when it was booming; in terms of “cumulation,” the A curve, representing the prices of securities, “shows the cumulative effects of the flow of money (into the market out of business, or out of the market into business)” (Karsten, 1926: 406). This led him to argue that the B curve was plotted upside down, and he showed that he could obtain a much larger correlation coefficient by following his theory.

宏观经济学代考

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Instability and Empirical Research in Klein’s Work

克莱因在伯克利完成了本科学习,在那里他学习了经济学、数学和统计学,这是他唯一可以上数理经济学课程的地方之一(克莱因和马里亚诺,1987:410)。他在格里菲斯·埃文斯 (Griffith Evans) 的学生的指导下学习了数学,在利奥·罗金 (Leo Rogin) 的指导下学习了经济学,后者向他介绍了凯恩斯经济学,并在杰日·内曼 (Jerzy Neyman) 的指导下学习了统计学。27在与 George Kuznets(诺贝尔奖获得者的兄弟)一起进行加州柠檬需求估算的暑期实习后,他转到麻省理工学院攻读研究生,成为萨缪尔森的助手(Klein 和 Mariano,1987:411),并最终成为他的第一个PH丁学生。他的统计学背景以及经济理论背景和他对凯恩斯经济学的了解使他与在纽约、剑桥(马萨诸塞州)和芝加哥研究计量经济学和数理经济学的新兴经济学家群体建立了联系。在麻省理工学院,他组织了一次统计研讨会,并设法邀请了 Haavelmo、Wald 和 Hotelling 等人,此外还有他的博士生导师 Samuelson,以及后者在哈佛的前任教授 EB Wilson(Klein,1991)。

克莱因在充分就业的存在性和稳定性问题上也是汉森、庇古和萨缪尔森的继承人,他在很大程度上借助经济模型澄清了不同的论点。28这是他开始的工作1944PH丁论文 (Klein, 1944),该论文于 1947 年作为凯恩斯主义革命 (1947a) 发表,这帮助他引起了 Marschak 的注意,当时他在 1944 年克利夫兰计量经济学会会议上介绍了该论文的一部分(Hurwicz 等人, 1945:84-85)。这篇论文给主持会议的 Marschak 留下了深刻的印象,他当时正在寻找一位有能力的年轻经济学家来开发他当时正在启动的建模程序。Marschak、Koopmans、Hurwicz 和 Klein 在会议最后一天的晚宴上讨论了在 Cowles 委员会招募 Klein 的想法(Bjerkholt,2014 年),最终 Klein 选择加入该委员会,并在那里完成了他的第一部宏观计量经济学著作。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Economic Barometers and “Cumulation”

在 Tinbergen 发表的第一篇文章中清楚地看到了对周期性波动机制的寻找,他认识到 Aftalion 危机理论的重要性,在他看来,这是少数能够解释“在每个周期中”这一事实的理论之一已经有了下一个种子”(Tinbergen,1927:715)。但丁伯根在这篇文章中并没有建立经济模型,其目的是为了让《经济学人》的读者了解统计和数理经济学以及商业周期分析的最新进展。此时,它所涵盖的基本上是围绕晴雨表的最新辩论,以及它们受到的批评。

Tinbergen 特别感兴趣的一场辩论是 Warren Persons 和 Alvin Hansen 讨论过的 Karl Karsten 的“新解释”。Karsten 是 1920 年代“正交理论”的主要支持者,该理论由 Charles Edge 于 1908 年提出 (Karsten, 1924: 14)。处于“正交”(从电气工程中借用的一个术语)意味着一条曲线的波动对应于另一条曲线的累积波动,或者换句话说,它的积分。2对于 Karsten 来说,这种方法的主要优点是展示了如何获得不同长度或幅度的周期:“通过正交理论,似乎可以将经济周期的各个阶段解释为完全有序且符合理论,并且但在时间点上完全不规则”(Karsten,1924:16)。

正是基于这一理论,Karsten 在 Karsten (1926) 中提出了对哈佛商业指数的新解释。虽然在晴雨表的“官方”解释中,A 曲线(投机)先于并导致 B 曲线(生产),但 Karsten 认为第二条曲线实际上是第一条曲线的因果前身,也是周期的真正驱动因素。他的理论论点是,重要的不是 B 曲线所代表的商业状况,而是伴随着商业状况不佳而流入市场的资金流量,以及相反的资金流向繁荣时期的业务;就“累积”而言,代表证券价格的 A 曲线“显示了资金流动的累积效应(进入市场的业务,或退出市场的业务)”(Karsten,1926:406 ).

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考

myassignments-help数学代考价格说明

1、客户需提供物理代考的网址,相关账户,以及课程名称,Textbook等相关资料~客服会根据作业数量和持续时间给您定价~使收费透明,让您清楚的知道您的钱花在什么地方。

2、数学代写一般每篇报价约为600—1000rmb,费用根据持续时间、周作业量、成绩要求有所浮动(持续时间越长约便宜、周作业量越多约贵、成绩要求越高越贵),报价后价格觉得合适,可以先付一周的款,我们帮你试做,满意后再继续,遇到Fail全额退款。

3、myassignments-help公司所有MATH作业代写服务支持付半款,全款,周付款,周付款一方面方便大家查阅自己的分数,一方面也方便大家资金周转,注意:每周固定周一时先预付下周的定金,不付定金不予继续做。物理代写一次性付清打9.5折。

Math作业代写、数学代写常见问题

留学生代写覆盖学科?

代写学科覆盖Math数学,经济代写,金融,计算机,生物信息,统计Statistics,Financial Engineering,Mathematical Finance,Quantitative Finance,Management Information Systems,Business Analytics,Data Science等。代写编程语言包括Python代写、Physics作业代写、物理代写、R语言代写、R代写、Matlab代写、C++代做、Java代做等。

数学作业代写会暴露客户的私密信息吗?

我们myassignments-help为了客户的信息泄露,采用的软件都是专业的防追踪的软件,保证安全隐私,绝对保密。您在我们平台订购的任何网课服务以及相关收费标准,都是公开透明,不存在任何针对性收费及差异化服务,我们随时欢迎选购的留学生朋友监督我们的服务,提出Math作业代写、数学代写修改建议。我们保障每一位客户的隐私安全。

留学生代写提供什么服务?

我们提供英语国家如美国、加拿大、英国、澳洲、新西兰、新加坡等华人留学生论文作业代写、物理代写、essay润色精修、课业辅导及网课代修代写、Quiz,Exam协助、期刊论文发表等学术服务,myassignments-help拥有的专业Math作业代写写手皆是精英学识修为精湛;实战经验丰富的学哥学姐!为你解决一切学术烦恼!

物理代考靠谱吗?

靠谱的数学代考听起来简单,但实际上不好甄别。我们能做到的靠谱,是把客户的网课当成自己的网课;把客户的作业当成自己的作业;并将这样的理念传达到全职写手和freelancer的日常培养中,坚决辞退糊弄、不守时、抄袭的写手!这就是我们要做的靠谱!

数学代考下单流程

提早与客服交流,处理你心中的顾虑。操作下单,上传你的数学代考/论文代写要求。专家结束论文,准时交给,在此过程中可与专家随时交流。后续互动批改

付款操作:我们数学代考服务正常多种支付方法,包含paypal,visa,mastercard,支付宝,union pay。下单后与专家直接互动。

售后服务:论文结束后保证完美经过turnitin查看,在线客服全天候在线为您服务。如果你觉得有需求批改的当地能够免费批改,直至您对论文满意为止。如果上交给教师后有需求批改的当地,只需求告诉您的批改要求或教师的comments,专家会据此批改。

保密服务:不需求提供真实的数学代考名字和电话号码,请提供其他牢靠的联系方法。我们有自己的工作准则,不会泄露您的个人信息。

myassignments-help擅长领域包含但不是全部:

myassignments-help服务请添加我们官网的客服或者微信/QQ,我们的服务覆盖:Assignment代写、Business商科代写、CS代考、Economics经济学代写、Essay代写、Finance金融代写、Math数学代写、report代写、R语言代考、Statistics统计学代写、物理代考、作业代写、加拿大代考、加拿大统计代写、北美代写、北美作业代写、北美统计代考、商科Essay代写、商科代考、数学代考、数学代写、数学作业代写、physics作业代写、物理代写、数据分析代写、新西兰代写、澳洲Essay代写、澳洲代写、澳洲作业代写、澳洲统计代写、澳洲金融代写、留学生课业指导、经济代写、统计代写、统计作业代写、美国Essay代写、美国代考、美国数学代写、美国统计代写、英国Essay代写、英国代考、英国作业代写、英国数学代写、英国统计代写、英国金融代写、论文代写、金融代考、金融作业代写。