# 电子工程代写|数字信号处理代写Digital Signal Processing代考|ELEC3104

## 电子工程代写|数字信号处理代写Digital Signal Processing代考|Requirements for Next-Generation Vehicular

Next-generation automotive systems are expected to provide multiple services with diverse goals and requirements. However, providing an exhaustive list of all applications that can possibly be offered through vehicular communication systems is rather difficult, considering their large number and wide variety. In the following, therefore, we focus on four “macro-applications” that, for their generality, complementarity and significance we believe are good representatives of the main types of next-generation automotive services. Although the requirements of such services are not yet fully specified, some qualifying characteristics can be outlined as follows.

• Infotainment generically refers to a set of services that deliver a combination of information and entertainment. Infotainment requires low latency and stable throughput (especially for streaming of high-quality video contents) and the dynamic maintenance of a multicast communication (e.g., for gaming), which can be an issue. Reliability requirements are typically loose for these services.
• Basic Safety services are typically characterized by very strict requirements. While the size of the exchanged safety messages is typically small (up to a few hundreds of bytes), latency must be very small to ensure prompt reactions to unpredictable events. V $2 \mathrm{X}$ connections must also be very reliable and stable, due to the sensitive nature of the exchanged information and the potential consequences of a communication failure.
• Cooperative Perception services deal with the enhancement of the sensing capabilities of a vehicle by sharing information with neighboring vehicles and infrastructures, with the final goal of extending the perception range of the driver beyond the line-of-sight or field-of-view of one single vehicle. This operation usually requires stable, reliable, and high throughput connections, due to the detailed nature of the shared contents, while some latency could be tolerated depending on the type of data contents exchanged among vehicles.
• Platooning refers to the services that make it possible for a group of vehicles that follow the same trajectory to travel in close proximity to one another, nose-totail, at highway speeds. A significant amount of information needs to be shared by $\mathrm{V} 2 \mathrm{X}$ communications. In addition to the strict latency requirement, the connection reliability and stability are also very critical.

## 电子工程代写|数字信号处理代写Digital Signal Processing代考|Dedicated Short-Range Communications

The IEEE $802.11 \mathrm{p}$ standard supports the PHY and MAC layers of the Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) transmission service. It can operate without a network infrastructure, removing the need for prior exchange of control information and thus bringing a significant advantage in terms of latency [1]. However, the throughput and delay performance can degrade as the network load increases (e.g., due to high user density), mainly because of the limited bandwidth and the “hidden node” problem. Furthermore, some V2X applications may require reliable transmissions beyond the communication range of IEEE $802.11 \mathrm{p}$, which is typically limited to hundreds of meters. Moreover, the maximum data rate supported by DSRC, between 6 and $27 \mathrm{Mbps}$ for each channel, may not be sufficient to sustain the transmission rates required by some next-generation automotive applications. For instance, highresolution sensors may require more than $50 \mathrm{Mbps}$, while rates produced by cameras range from around $10 \mathrm{Mbps}$ for low-resolution compressed images up to around 500 Mbps for high-resolution images [5].

ITF offers nbiquitous coverage and collision-free packet transmission, but the support of vehicular communication services may still be limited. For example, access and transmission latency increase with the number of users in the cell, thus raising scalability issues. Despite the almost ubiquitous coverage of LTE, still the connection may not be always available, or good enough to satisfy the stringent reliability requirements under weak coverage (e.g., in tunnels, underground parking lots, rural areas, mountains). Finally, the maximum data rate of 4G-LTE systems is limited to around $100 \mathrm{Mbps}$ for high mobility (though much lower rates are typical), which may not be sufficient to handle the potential gigabit rates that can be generated by next-generation vehicles [1].

## 电子工程代写|数字信号处理代写Digital Signal Processing代考|Requirements for Next-Generation Vehicular

• 信息娱乐通常是指提供信息和娱乐组合的一组服务。信息娱乐需要低延迟和稳定的吞吐量（尤其是对于高质量视频内容的流式传输）以及多播通信的动态维护（例如，对于游戏），这可能是一个问题。这些服务的可靠性要求通常很宽松。
• 基本安全服务通常具有非常严格的要求。虽然交换的安全消息的大小通常很小（最多几百个字节），但延迟必须非常小以确保对不可预测的事件做出迅速反应。V2X由于交换信息的敏感性和通信失败的潜在后果，连接还必须非常可靠和稳定。
• 协作感知服务通过与相邻车辆和基础设施共享信息来增强车辆的感知能力，最终目标是将驾驶员的感知范围扩展到一个人的视线或视野之外单车。由于共享内容的详细性质，此操作通常需要稳定、可靠和高吞吐量的连接，同时根据车辆之间交换的数据内容的类型，可以容忍一些延迟。
• 队列行驶是指使一组遵循相同轨迹的车辆能够以高速公路速度彼此靠近行驶的服务。需要共享大量信息在2X通讯。除了严格的延迟要求外，连接的可靠性和稳定性也非常关键。

## 电子工程代写|数字信号处理代写Digital Signal Processing代考|Dedicated Short-Range Communications

IEEE802.11p标准支持专用短程通信 (DSRC) 传输服务的 PHY 和 MAC 层。它可以在没有网络基础设施的情况下运行，无需事先交换控制信息，从而在延迟方面带来显着优势 [1]。然而，吞吐量和延迟性能会随着网络负载的增加而降低（例如，由于高用户密度），这主要是因为带宽有限和“隐藏节点”问题。此外，某些 V2X 应用程序可能需要超出 IEEE 通信范围的可靠传输802.11p，通常限于数百米。此外，DSRC 支持的最大数据速率介于 6 和27米bp秒对于每个通道，可能不足以维持某些下一代汽车应用所需的传输速率。例如，高分辨率传感器可能需要超过50米bp秒，而相机产生的速率范围从大约10米bp秒对于低分辨率压缩图像高达约 500 Mbps 的高分辨率图像 [5]。

ITF提供无处不在的覆盖和无碰撞的数据包传输，但对车载通信服务的支持可能仍然有限。例如，访问和传输延迟会随着小区中用户数量的增加而增加，从而引发可扩展性问题。尽管 LTE 几乎无处不在，但连接可能并不总是可用，或者不足以满足弱覆盖（例如，在隧道、地下停车场、农村地区、山区）下严格的可靠性要求。最后，4G-LTE 系统的最大数据速率被限制在大约100米bp秒对于高机动性（虽然低得多的速率是典型的），这可能不足以处理下一代车辆可能产生的潜在千兆速率 [1]。

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