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经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECONOMIC VERSUS ACCOUNTING COSTS

Closely related to the distinction between explicit and implicit costs is the distinction between economic costs and accounting costs. Economic costs are synonymous with opportunity costs and, as such, are the sum of all decision-relevant explicit and implicit costs. Accounting costs-the costs that would appear on accounting statements-are explicit costs that have been incurred in the past. Accounting statements are designed to serve an audience outside the firm, such as lenders and equity investors, so accounting costs must be objectively verifiable. That’s why accounting statements typically include historical expenses only – explicit cash outlays already made (e.g., the amounts the firm actually spent on labor and materials in the past year). An accounting statement would not include implicit costs such as the opportunity costs associated with the use of the firm’s factories because such costs are often hard to measure in an objectively verifiable way. For that reason, an accounting statement for an owner-operated small business would not include the opportunity cost of the owner’s time. And because accounting statements use historical costs, not current market prices, to compute costs, the costs on the profit-and-loss statement of the automobile firm that purchased that sheet steel would reflect the $\mathrm{S} 1$ million purchase price of that steel, but it would not reflect the $\$ 1.2$ million opportunity cost that it incurs when the firm actually uses that steel to manufacture automobiles.

In contrast, economic costs include all these decision-relevant costs. To an economist, all decision-relevant costs (whether explicit or implicit) are opportunity costs and are therefore included as economic costs.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|SUNK (UNAVOIDABLE) VERSUS NONSUNK (AVOIDABLE) COSTS

To analyze costs, we also need to distinguish between sunk and nonsunk costs. When assessing the costs of a decision, the decision maker should consider only those costs that the decision actually affects. Some costs have already been incurred and therefore cannot be avoided, no matter what decision is made. These are called sunk costs. By contrast, nonsunk costs are costs that will be incurred only if a particular decision is made and are thus avoided if the decision is not made (for this reason, nonsunk costs are also called avoidable costs). When evaluating alternative decisions, the decision maker should ignore sunk costs and consider only nonsunk costs. Why? Consider the following example.

You pay $\$ 7.50$ to go see a movie. Ten minutes into the movie, it is clear that the movie is awful. You face a choice: Should you leave or stay? The relevant cost of staying is that you could more valuably spend your time doing just about anything else. The relevant cost of leaving is the enjoyment that you might forgo if the movie proves to be better than the first 10 minutes suggest. The relevant cost of leaving does not include the $\$ 7.50$ price of admission. That cost is sunk. No matter what you decide to do, you’ve already paid the admission fee, and its amount should be irrelevant to your decision to leave.

The next example further illustrates the distinction between sunk costs and nonsunk costs. Consider a sporting goods firm that manufactures bowling balls. Let’s assume that a bowling ball factory costs $\$ 5$ million to build and that, once it is built, the factory is so highly specialized that it has no alternative uses. Thus, if the sporting goods firm shuts the factory down and produces nothing, it will not “recover” any of the $\$ 5$ million it spent to build the factory.

  • In deciding whetber to build the factory, the $\$ 5$ million is a nonsunk cost. It is a cost the sporting goods firm incurs only if it builds the factory. At the time the decision is being considered, the decision maker can avoid spending the $\mathrm{S} 5$ million.
  • After tbe factory is built, the $\$ 5$ million is a sunk cost. It is a cost the sporting goods firm incurs no matter what it later chooses to do with the factory, so this cost is unavoidable. When deciding whetber to openate the factory or shut it down, the sporting goods firm therefore should ignore this cost.

This example illustrates an important point: Whetber a cost is sunk or nonsunk depends on the decision that is being contemplated. To identify what costs are sunk and what costs are nonsunk in a particular decision, you should always ask which costs would change as a result of making one choice as opposed to another. These are the nonsunk costs. The costs that do not change no matter what choice we make are the sunk costs.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON2516

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECONOMIC VERSUS ACCOUNTING COSTS

与显性和隐性成本之间的区别密切相关的是经济成本和会计成本之间的区别。经济成本是机会成本的同义词,因此是所有与决策相关的显性和隐性成本的总和。会计成本——出现在会计报表上的成本——是过去发生的显性成本。会计报表旨在为公司外部的受众服务,例如贷方和股权投资者,因此会计成本必须能够客观地核实。这就是为什么会计报表通常只包括历史费用——已经做出的明确现金支出(例如,公司在过去一年实际花费在劳动力和材料上的金额)。会计报表不会包括隐性成本,例如与使用公司工厂相关的机会成本,因为此类成本通常难以以客观可验证的方式衡量。因此,所有者经营的小企业的会计报表不包括所有者时间的机会成本。而且由于会计报表使用历史成本而不是当前市场价格来计算成本,因此购买该钢板的汽车公司的损益表中的成本将反映小号1万元采购价格,但它不会反映$1.2当公司实际使用该钢材制造汽车时,会产生 100 万美元的机会成本。

相反,经济成本包括所有这些与决策相关的成本。对经济学家而言,所有与决策相关的成本(无论是显性成本还是隐性成本)都是机会成本,因此都包含在经济成本中。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|SUNK (UNAVOIDABLE) VERSUS NONSUNK (AVOIDABLE) COSTS

要分析成本,我们还需要区分沉没成本和非沉没成本。在评估决策的成本时,决策者应该只考虑决策实际影响的那些成本。有些成本已经发生,因此无论做出什么决定都无法避免。这些被称为沉没成本。相比之下,非沉没成本是只有在做出特定决定时才会发生的成本,因此如果不做出决定则可以避免(因此,非沉没成本也称为可避免成本)。在评估备选决策时,决策者应该忽略沉没成本,而只考虑非沉没成本。为什么?考虑以下示例。

你付钱$7.50去看电影。电影开始十分钟后,很明显这部电影很糟糕。你面临一个选择:你应该离开还是留下?留下来的相关成本是你可以更有价值地花时间做任何其他事情。如果电影被证明比前 10 分钟所建议的要好,离开的相关成本就是你可能会放弃的享受。离职相关费用不包括$7.50门票价格。该成本已沉没。无论你决定做什么,你已经支付了入场费,其金额应该与你决定离开无关。

下一个例子进一步说明了沉没成本和非沉没成本之间的区别。考虑一家生产保龄球的体育用品公司。让我们假设保龄球工厂的成本$5百万美元建造,而且一旦建成,工厂就非常专业化,没有其他用途。因此,如果体育用品公司关闭工厂并且什么都不生产,它就不会“恢复”任何$5建厂耗资万元。

  • 在决定建厂时,$5万元是非沉没成本。这是体育用品公司只有在建造工厂时才会产生的成本。在考虑决策时,决策者可以避免花费小号5百万。
  • 工厂建成后,$5万元是沉没成本。无论以后选择与工厂做什么,体育用品公司都会承担这种成本,因此这种成本是不可避免的。因此,在决定是开厂还是关厂时,体育用品公司应该忽略这个成本。

这个例子说明了一个重要的观点:成本是沉没的还是非沉没的取决于正在考虑的决策。要确定在特定决策中哪些成本是沉没的,哪些成本是非沉没的,您应该始终询问哪些成本会因做出一种选择而不是另一种选择而改变。这些是非沉没成本。无论我们做出什么选择都不会改变的成本就是沉没成本。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考

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