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经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Can Good News for Farming Be Bad News for Farmers?

Imagine you’re a Kansas wheat farmer. Because you earn all your income from selling wheat, you devote much effort to making your land as productive as possible. You monitor weather and soil conditions, check your fields for pests and disease, and study the latest advances in farm technology. You know that the more wheat you grow, the more you will have to sell after the harvest, and the higher your income and standard of living will be.

One day, Kansas State University announces a major discovery. Researchers in its agronomy department have devised a new hybrid of wheat that raises the amount farmers can produce from each acre of land by 20 percent. How should you react to this news? Does this discovery make you better off or worse off than you were before?

Recall from Chapter 4 that we answer such questions in three steps. First, we examine whether the supply or demand curve shifts. Second, we consider the direction in which the curve shifts. Third, we use the supply-and-demand diagram to see how the market equilibrium changes.

In this case, the discovery of the new hybrid affects the supply curve. Because the hybrid increases the amount of wheat that can be produced on each acre of land, farmers are now willing to supply more wheat at any given price. In other words, the supply curve shifts to the right. The demand curve remains the same because consumers’ desire to buy wheat products at any given price is not affected by the introduction of a new hybrid. Figure 7 shows an example of such a change. When the supply curve shifts from $S_1$ to $S_2$, the quantity of wheat sold increases from 100 to 110 and the price of wheat falls from $\$ 3$ to $\$ 2$.

Does this discovery make farmers better off? Let’s consider what happens to the total revenue they receive. Farmers’ total revenue is $P \times Q$, the price of the wheat times the quantity sold. The discovery affects farmers in two conflicting ways. The hybrid allows farmers to produce more wheat ( $Q$ rises), but now each bushel of wheat sells for less ( $P$ falls).

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Why Did OPEC Fail to Keep the Price of Oil High?

Many of the most disruptive events for the world’s economies over the past several decades have originated in the world market for oil. In the $1970 \mathrm{~s}$, members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) decided to raise the world price of oil to increase their incomes. These countries accomplished this goal by agreeing to jointly reduce the amount of oil they supplied. As a result, the price of oil (adjusted for overall inflation) rose more than 50 percent from 1973 to 1974. Then, a few years later, OPEC did the same thing again. From 1979 to 1981 , the price of oil approximately doubled.

Yet OPEC found it difficult to maintain such a high price. From 1982 to 1985, the price of oil steadily declined about 10 percent per year. Dissatisfaction and disarray soon prevailed among the OPEC countries. In 1986, cooperation among OPEC members completely broke down, and the price of oil plunged 45 percent. In 1990, the price of oil (adjusted for overall inflation) was back to where it began in 1970, and it stayed at that low level throughout most of the 1990s. (During the first two decades of the 21st century, the price of oil fluctuated substantially once again, but the main driving force was not OPEC supply restrictions. Instead, booms and busts in economies around the world caused demand to fluctuate, while advances in fracking technology caused large increases in supply.)

The OPEC episodes of the 1970s and 1980s show how supply and demand can behave differently in the short run and in the long run. In the short run, both the supply and demand for oil are relatively inelastic. Supply is inelastic because the quantity of known oil reserves and the capacity for oil extraction cannot be changed quickly. Demand is inelastic because buying habits do not respond immediately to changes in price. Thus, as panel (a) of Figure 8 shows, the short-run supply and demand curves are steep. When the supply of oil shifts from $S_1$ to $S_2$, the price increase from $P_1$ to $P_2$ is large.

The situation is very different in the long run. Over long periods of time, producers of oil outside OPEC respond to high prices by increasing oil exploration and by building new extraction capacity. Consumers respond with greater conservation, such as by replacing old inefficient cars with newer efficient ones. Thus, as panel (b) of Figure 8 shows, the long-run supply and demand curves are more elastic. In the long run, the shift in the supply curve from $S_1$ to $S_2$ causes a much smaller increase in the price.

This analysis shows why OPEC succeeded in maintaining a high price of oil only in the short run. When OPEC countries agreed to reduce their production of oil, they shifted the supply curve to the left. Even though each OPEC member sold less oil, the price rose by so much in the short run that OPEC incomes rose. In the long run, however, supply and demand are more elastic. As a result, the same reduction in supply, measured by the horizontal shift in the supply curve, caused a smaller increase in the price. Thus, OPEC’s coordinated reduction in supply proved less profitable in the long run. The cartel learned that raising prices is easier in the short run than in the long run.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON106

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Can Good News for Farming Be Bad News for Farmers?

想象一下,你是堪萨斯州的小麦农。因为你所有的收入都来自卖小麦,所以你付出了很多努力来使你的土地尽可能多产。您监控天气和土壤状况,检查您的田地是否有病虫害,并研究农业技术的最新进展。你知道,你种的小麦越多,收获后你要卖的越多,你的收入和生活水平就会越高。

有一天,堪萨斯州立大学宣布了一项重大发现。其农学部门的研究人员设计了一种新的小麦杂交品种,可将农民每英亩土地的产量提高 20%。你应该如何看待这个消息?这个发现会让你比以前更好或更糟吗?

回想第 4 章,我们分三个步骤回答这些问题。首先,我们检查供给曲线或需求曲线是否移动。其次,我们考虑曲线移动的方向。第三,我们用供求图来观察市场均衡是如何变化的。

在这种情况下,新混合物的发现会影响供给曲线。因为杂交增加了每英亩土地上可以生产的小麦数量,农民现在愿意以任何给定的价格供应更多的小麦。换句话说,供给曲线向右移动。需求曲线保持不变,因为消费者以任何给定价格购买小麦产品的愿望不受引入新杂交种的影响。图 7 显示了这种变化的一个示例。当供给曲线从小号1至小号2,小麦销售量从 100 增加到 110,小麦价格从$3至$2.

这一发现会让农民生活得更好吗?让我们考虑一下他们收到的总收入会发生什么变化。农民总收入为磷×问,小麦的价格乘以销售量。这一发现以两种相互矛盾的方式影响着农民。杂交种允许农民生产更多的小麦(问上涨),但现在每蒲式耳小麦的售价降低了(磷下降)。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Why Did OPEC Fail to Keep the Price of Oil High?

过去几十年对世界经济体造成的许多最具破坏性的事件都起源于世界石油市场。在里面1970 s,石油输出国组织(欧佩克)成员国决定提高世界石油价格以增加收入。这些国家通过同意共同减少其供应的石油量来实现这一目标。结果,石油价格(根据总体通货膨胀调整)从 1973 年到 1974 年上涨了 50% 以上。几年后,欧佩克又做了同样的事情。从 1979 年到 1981 年,石油价格大约翻了一番。

然而,欧佩克发现很难维持如此高的价格。从 1982 年到 1985 年,石油价格每年稳步下降约 10%。不满和混乱很快在欧佩克国家中蔓延开来。1986年,欧佩克成员国之间的合作彻底破裂,油价暴跌45%。1990 年,石油价格(根据总体通货膨胀进行了调整)回到了 1970 年开始的水平,并且在 1990 年代的大部分时间里都保持在这个低水平。(在 21 世纪的前二十年间,石油价格再次大幅波动,但主要驱动力不是欧佩克的供应限制。相反,全球经济的繁荣和萧条导致需求波动,而水力压裂技术的进步技术导致供应大幅增加。)

1970 年代和 1980 年代的欧佩克事件显示了供需在短期和长期中的表现如何不同。短期来看,石油的供需都比较缺乏弹性。供给是缺乏弹性的,因为已知石油储量和石油开采能力不能迅速改变。需求缺乏弹性,因为购买习惯不会立即对价格变化做出反应。因此,如图 8 的面板 (a) 所示,短期供需曲线是陡峭的。当石油供应从小号1至小号2,价格从磷1至磷2很大。

从长远来看,情况大不相同。长期以来,欧佩克以外的石油生产商通过增加石油勘探和建设新的开采能力来应对高油价。消费者以更大的节约做出回应,例如用效率更高的新汽车替换旧的低效汽车。因此,如图 8 的面板 (b) 所示,长期供需曲线更具弹性。从长期来看,供给曲线从小号1至小号2导致价格上涨幅度较小。

这一分析说明了为什么欧佩克只能在短期内成功地维持高油价。当欧佩克国家同意减少石油产量时,他们将供应曲线向左移动。尽管每个欧佩克成员国的石油销售量减少,但价格在短期内上涨得如此之多,以至于欧佩克的收入增加了。然而,从长远来看,供给和需求更具弹性。结果,同样的供给减少(以供给曲线的水平移动来衡量)导致价格上涨幅度较小。因此,从长远来看,欧佩克协调减少供应的做法证明利润较低。卡特尔了解到,提高价格在短期内比在长期内更容易。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考

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