# 数学代写|数值方法作业代写numerical methods代考|MATH340-002

## 数学代写|数值方法作业代写numerical methods代考|Modeling procedure

Generally, the steps to developing models include conceptualization, formulation, computational representation, solution, calibration, validation, and application. There are many structures toward developing or building a model which depends on the modeler prerogative. In Eykhoff (1974), two main classification of models were given as priori structural knowledge and the posteriori measurement knowledge. The priori structural knowledge is simply a deductive reasoning approach which is based on existing general theory while the posteriori measurement knowledge is the inductive reasoning approach based on measurement. Both procedures can be combined as presented in Fig. 4.3.

The conceptualization stage is the most important step of modeling because all the groups of parameters, the sequence of the parameter, the conditions at which a parameter takes preeminence, the type of methods that would accommodate all the steps, and the working knowledge of failed models in the past. The latter seem to be the most important point in model conceptualization. There are lots of models in environmental science that are regarded as failed models based on so many factors peculiar to the problem to be solved. There is no point reinventing the wheel if adequate knowledge of existing models is not acquired. Modeler are expected to understudy existing and failed models to guide the choice of parameters. In some cases, the model based on regional geographical climates would add a parameter that may not be relevant in another geographical region. For example, including snow melting rate in a model would naturally be a failed option for scientist in the tropics. In other words, the sound knowledge of the group parameters would help in christening the model after implementation stage. For example, it would be better to christen a model as “one-dimensional tropical hydrodynamic model” than to give a generic title that may be misleading to researchers from other climatic regions of the globe. The sequence of the parameter, and the conditions at which a parameter takes preeminence is very important in conceptualization this would help the modeler to know exactly what kind of method that would be appropriate to build the model. As discussed earlier, the methods may be in form of a mathematical model (e.g., advection-diffusion water quality model, finite-difference model), computational models (machine learning, simulations, big data analytics), observation models (ecological model, hydrodynamic model) and statistical models. The other elements of a model can be summarized in Fig. $4.4$.

## 数学代写|数值方法作业代写numerical methods代考|Safety rules

Basic safety rules for laboratory conduct should be observed whenever working in a laboratory. Same procedure should be observed in field work. Many of the most common safety rules are listed below. Safety rules are divided into safety location rules, pre-experimental safety, experiment safety rules, post-experimental safety, and general safety rules. In this section, the safety rules is discussed in two sections i.e., laboratory and field researchers.
1.4.1.1 Safety for environmental field researcher
The first safety rules in field research are planning and preparation. Most field researcher lacks this skill. Field survey are plagued with many unseen factors ranging from social risk, cultural risk, topographic risk, weather risk, pollution risk, allergy risk, organization risk etc. For example, a researcher who wants to take measurement in a field that have vested interest by big company may likely lose his/her reputation or lives. In this regard, there are uncountable cases of researcher abduction or demise. All this risk must be in the research plan to avoid loss of lives, properties, or reputation.

Based on the above information, it is not advisable for individuals to embark on field research. Group work is highly recommended in this wise. The basis requirement for such group is training on i. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or first aid class;
ii. disease control and prevention;
iii. use of communication devices for local and international rescue program;
iv. use of personal protective equipment;
v. disease vectors catalog.
Office of Environment, Health \& Safety (OEHS) University of California, Berkeley, gave a chart that should guide field research across countries as shown in Table 4.5. Another very important aspect of field research is the exposure to certain disease vectors such as bats, rodents, and mosquitoes. In DRC Congo, bats are known as the main carrier of Ebola which had already claimed above a million lives by 2019 . The mosquitoes are common in the tropics. Exposure to the anopheles’ mosquitoes could lead to malaria. About 700 million people die every year as a result of mosquito-borne disease. The Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever to humans. Exposure to rodents may lead to fatigue, fever, muscle aches, and sometimes headaches, dizziness, chills, abdominal problems, coughing, and shortness of breath.

# 数值方法代考

## 数学代写|数值方法作业代写numerical methods代考|Safety rules

1.4.1.1 环境领域研究人员的安全

ii. 疾病控制和预防；
iii. 使用通讯设备进行本地和国际救援计划；
iv. 使用个人防护设备；
v. 病媒目录。

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