建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARTH103

建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Storage and Retrieval

Another widespread use of the underground is for the sequestering of valuable commodities, including money, computer data, and servers. Bank vaults have long been located underground in order to reduce the risk of breach. The Torrione of Niccolò $\mathrm{V}$, a tower and underground vault built by Bernardo Rossellino between 1451 and 1455 in Vatican City, provides a case in point. Originally a prison inside the Leonine Walls, today this structure is the headquarters of a controversial bank: the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR). While it was founded as a local bank for Vatican citizens, the IOR later became an offshore entity, and over the years rumors have proliferated about the bank’s activities of money laundering, occult funding, and obscure geopolitical affairs. Their opaque presence is also emphasized by the image of the Torrione: a sort of bunker, whose 30 -foot-thick walls protect its secrets from any process of transparency that similar banks are subject to around the world. For many years, mystery has haunted the IOR’s activities; it was rumored to have 130 employees and about 44,000 saving accounts. Customers were identified through a code number only, and operations were not traceable. Its business was known only to the pope and a few other Vatican authorities. In 2012, for the first time in its history, the IOR opened its doors to journalists. In 2013, the bank published its financial holdings. Such underground vaults often carry a double significance; they project an air of security and impenetrability, while simultaneously occluding their operations in a shroud of mystery.

While tens of thousands of underground bank vaults continue to serve their intended purpose, today our most valuable commodity is information, stored in the form of data and located materially on computer servers. The need to store and retrieve computer data has constituted one of the most generative technological and infrastructural challenges of the last seventy-five years. In the 1950s and 1960s, universities, governments, and corporations built massive warehouses dedicated to housing punch cards and magnetic tape. In the 1970s and 1980s, many tech writers imagined that the microprocessor revolution would obviate the need for massive physical storage facilities. However, with the proliferation of the internet in the 1990s, the need for information storage grew exponentially. In some cases, conventional buildings, originally designed for other purposes, were converted to accommodate cables, computers and servers. In Downtown Los Angeles, for example, is a 39-story tower-a construction with a regular façade and with no peculiar formal qualities. Designed by SOM in their San Francisco branch, the building was supposed to house offices-window areas were in fact maximized to provide light and vicws for the occupants.’ In 1992, the towcr One Wilshire became a carrier hotel, and on the fourth floor a large meet-me-room (MMR) was installed-a space where different telecommunication companies could physically connect one to another and exchange data. In contradicting the modernist principle which inspired its construction-form follows function-One Wilshire solidifies a double contradiction: outside is a conventional tower, reflecting Fordist models of labor organization. Inside is an interconnected world of cables, data, and information-one of the crucial hubs for Western U.S., where most of the traffic from the U.S. to Asia passes through the building. ${ }^{10}$ In addition, One Wilshire proves how virtual space needs physical space. Or, virtual space needs infrastructures.

Fredric Jameson identified in the Bonaventure Hotel the crystallization of postmodernism, or the cultural logic of late capitalism, because of its reflective surfaces, and its position in relation to the surrounding urban context of a sprawling, centerless Los Angeles. ${ }^{12}$ However, it might be just as reasonable to see data centers, seed banks, and carrier hotels as harbingers of late-capitalist spatial production Indeed, few projects underscore the relationship between the Underworld and late capitalism more than the development of the dark fiber connection between the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Nasdaq data hub in Carteret, New Jersey. Constructed by Spread Networks (now owned by Zayo Group Holdings, Inc.), the project consists of a large bundle of optical cables laid in a 1,331 kilometer trench and tunnel between the two points. While fiber optic lines generally follow existing underground sewer and utility ducts as well as railroad corridors, the Spread Network trench plies the straightest line possible, even boring through mountains and crossing farm fields to do so. At an initial cost of $\$ \mathrm{US} 300$million, the cable provides “dark fibre” (lines that lay dormant until called upon) for stockbrokers and other clients to reduce latency by shaving three milliseconds off trading time-a crucial advantage in the high-speed, algorithm-driven world of arbitrage.${ }^{13}$Over the last century, then, a constellation of new landforms and building typologies has emerged in relation to changing socio-technical conditions. In this sense, a journey through the Underworld helps draw some conclusions about its physical and symbolic role. First, the Underworld constitutes an inverted infrastructural terrain-the mirrored continuation of spatial politics. Issues of territorial control, defense, labor, land exploitation, privatization of public spaces, all continue downwards in the remote and dark areas of our cities. Second, the Underworld reveals a spatial paradox: the more immaterial and intangible our everyday communicative world becomes-from cloud storage to big datathe more obscure, segregated, and inaccessible are the infrastructure forms that support it. Hidden behind Victorian houses, or buried 100 feet below the ground, the physical presence of the Underworld is inversely proportioned to the contents it stores. This apparent contradiction does not weaken late capitalism’s image; on the contrary, it enhances it. And third, while its surfaces are often hidden, abandoned, neglected, or denied, the Underworld nevertheless presents a field of possibilities. Rather than imagining it only as a negative and threatening realm, we can study its intertwined articulations and the relationships these produce between humans and objects, bodies and spaces, data and images. By doing so, we will better understand spatial and ideological conditions behind architecture, and, ultimately, we can develop a more comprehensive understanding of the relation of infrastructure to power. 建筑史代考 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Storage and Retrieval 地下的另一个广泛用途是隔离有价值的商品，包括金钱、计算机数据和服务器。银行金库长期以来一直位于地下，以降低违规风险。尼科洛的托里奥内在，一座由贝尔纳多·罗塞里诺于 1451 年至 1455 年间在梵蒂冈城建造的塔楼和地下拱顶就是一个很好的例子。最初是 Leonine Walls 内的监狱，今天这个结构是一家有争议的银行的总部：Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR)。虽然它是作为梵蒂冈公民的当地银行而成立的，但后来成为离岸实体，多年来关于该银行洗钱、神秘资金和晦涩的地缘政治活动的谣言四起。Torrione 的形象也强调了它们不透明的存在：一种掩体，其 30 英尺厚的墙壁保护其秘密免受世界各地类似银行所受的任何透明过程的影响。多年来，谜团一直困扰着 IOR 的活动。据说有130名员工，大约44人，000个储蓄账户。客户仅通过代码识别，操作无法追踪。它的业务只有教皇和其他几个梵蒂冈当局知道。2012 年，IOR 历史上第一次向记者敞开大门。2013年，该银行公布了其金融资产。这种地下金库通常具有双重意义。他们散发出一种安全和不可穿透的气氛，同时也将他们的行动隐藏在一层神秘的面纱中。这种地下金库通常具有双重意义。他们散发出一种安全和不可穿透的气氛，同时也将他们的行动隐藏在一层神秘的面纱中。这种地下金库通常具有双重意义。他们散发出一种安全和不可穿透的气氛，同时也将他们的行动隐藏在一层神秘的面纱中。 虽然数以万计的地下钱庄金库继续服务于它们的预期目的，但今天我们最有价值的商品是信息，以数据的形式存储并实质上位于计算机服务器上。存储和检索计算机数据的需求构成了过去 75 年来最具创新性的技术和基础设施挑战之一。在 1950 和 1960 年代，大学、政府和公司建造了专门用于存放穿孔卡片和磁带的大型仓库。在 1970 年代和 1980 年代，许多科技作家认为微处理器革命将消除对大型物理存储设施的需求。然而，随着 1990 年代互联网的普及，对信息存储的需求呈指数增长。在某些情况下，传统建筑，最初设计用于其他目的，经过改造以容纳电缆、计算机和服务器。例如，在洛杉矶市中心，有一座 39 层的塔楼——这是一座具有规则立面且没有特殊形式品质的建筑。这座建筑由 SOM 在其旧金山分公司设计，原本是用来容纳办公室的——实际上，窗户区域被最大化，为居住者提供光线和便利。1992 年，Towcr One Wilshire 成为一家运营商酒店，并在四楼安装了一个大型会议室 (MMR)——不同的电信公司可以在此空间进行物理连接并交换数据。与启发其建造的现代主义原则相矛盾——形式遵循功能——威尔希尔巩固了双重矛盾：外面是一座传统的塔楼，反映了福特主义的劳工组织模式。内部是一个由电缆、数据和信息组成的相互连接的世界——美国西部的重要枢纽之一，从美国到亚洲的大部分交通都通过这座大楼。10此外，One Wilshire 证明了虚拟空间如何需要物理空间。或者，虚拟空间需要基础设施。 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|At the End of the Journey 弗雷德里克詹姆森在博纳旺德酒店确定了后现代主义的结晶，或晚期资本主义的文化逻辑，因为它的反射表面，以及它与周围城市环境的关系，一个庞大的、无中心的洛杉矶。12然而，将数据中心、种子银行和运营商酒店视为晚期资本主义空间生产的先兆，这可能同样合理。事实上，很少有项目能比发展地下世界和晚期资本主义之间的关系更能强调它们之间的暗光纤连接。芝加哥商品交易所和新泽西州卡特雷特的纳斯达克数据中心。该项目由Spread Networks（现为Zayo Group Holdings, Inc.所有）建造，由铺设在两点之间1,331公里长的沟渠和隧道中的一大束光缆组成。虽然光纤线路通常沿着现有的地下下水道和公用管道以及铁路走廊铺设，但 Spread Network 沟渠铺设了尽可能直线的线路，甚至穿过山脉和穿过农田来做到这一点。初始成本为$在小号300百万美元，该电缆为股票经纪人和其他客户提供“暗光纤”（在被调用之前一直处于休眠状态），通过将交易时间缩短 3 毫秒来减少延迟——这是高速、算法驱动的套利世界中的一个关键优势。13

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