# 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|CE321

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|The ecology of the egg

During the construction of the Million Program, effectiveness, “rationalization,” and standardization became paramount, and quantitative concerns dominated others as the aim to create one million units in ten years took center stage. The incredible speed of implementation required architects, planners, and construction companies to design and build efficiently, using building techniques that demanded cranes. Government loan conditions required the standards from Good Housing for buildings but not landscapes, rendering them guidelines rather than preconditions. Existing natural features like hills or forests were often leveled to create flat fields that facilitated the use of these machines but devastated soil conditions. ${ }^{11}$ With this in mind, designers of Million Program neighborhoods-including their sequences of construction-tended to plan each site as a tabula rasa. In the process, as Thorbjörn Andersson writes, their existing landscapes “were scalped, like you do when you cut the top off an egg.”12

These erasures of both existing greenery and the conditions needed for replanting complicated the development of outdoor spaces, even as designers pursued their “towers in the park, inspired by international modernist models.” Good Housing emphasized access to light and air and distances from housing blocks to playgrounds, yet its authors omitted specific details, seeming to assume that the local conditions of the site would shape the process. As the National Board of Urban Planning (Statens Planverk) explained in their 1972 publication Recommendations and Directions for Planning of the Housing Environment, the “intention was not to define a fixed quality level for the entire country but instead to provide a basis for municipal standpoints concerning quality, tailored to local resources and desires.” ${ }^{13}$ Just as Housing Board researchers dimensioned furniture without specifying materials, they also declined to specify ground surfaces or plants or to consider the different affective and social effects of such choices. This was not necessarily because they did not see them as important but because such measures could emerge from a careful planning process for each location.

Instead of filling in the general framework that the Good Housing authors had provided with site-specific concerns, however, construction companies often simply built the framework. Builders treated schematic designs as construction documents, omitting the reworking through local conditions that the National Board of Urban Planning described. Builders privileged efficiency in both building and landscape construction, leading to a “mechanical way to regard biological life” (Andersson 2000, 83) that saw trees, bushes, and grass as construction elements rather than living organisms. Rather than experiential qualities where gardens “shall be consciously designed and defined in relation to its functions, not left over when all the other demands have been fulfilled,” ${ }^{14}$ as outlined in Good Housing, the parks around the towers became exactly the opposite.

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Barriers and barberry

As the guidelines for outdoor spaces outlined in Good Housing were taken more literally than their authors intended, this also stood in stark contrast to earlier prevailing Swedish ideas toward green spaces, particularly under the famed 1930s Stockholm School. In their study of Swedish housing of the “Record Years,” Birgitta Roos and Hanna Gelotte note that designs for outdoor spaces during that earlier period took inspiration from the natural Swedish landscape and the attitude that the outdoor environment should include “as few interventions as possible.” ${ }^{\prime 1}$

During the production-oriented planning of the 1960s and 1970s, new green spaces were instead created from total interventions, where “vegetation’s function as a room creator and architectonic volume were prioritized before the individual qualities and decorative function of trees and bushes.” ${ }^{\prime 20}$ This industrialized view of ecology focused primarily on quantity and speed, rather than on ground surfaces, plant species, or street furniture. Sensory experiences of landscapes and their psychological and social effects on residents were not prioritized.

Even so, the purveyors of industrialized ecologies retained certain aesthetic aspirations in their assiduously architectonic approach. Their proposals tried to, as landscape architect Thorbjörn Andersson describes, “revolutionize biology,” even carrying out plantings in cubes to given them a “severe, manufactured, and modern form. ${ }^{\prime 21}$ Furthermore, the National Board of Urban Planning had clarified a specific hierarchy for sensory experiences in outdoor spaces by 1972 :

The physical form of the environment is experienced with our senses, primarily as a visual experience. This visual experience, though, is only part of the overall environmental experience. The design and grouping of the urban area, the planning of the land, the relationship between the new and existing buildings, however, has a stronger impact on the environment. The visual experience is therefore significant. Not least for those who spend most of their time in the residential area and therefore mainly refer to the housing environment and the experiences and impressions it can provide. ${ }^{22}$

In other words, while acknowledging that the “visual experience” was just one component of the housing environment (and mentioning other senses in a later paragraph), the National Board of Urban Planning nonetheless argued for sight as the sense of primary importance. Landscapes were chiefly meant to be seen, and they were to be seen in sculptural terms rather than spiritual or affective ones.

# 环境设计代考

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Barriers and barberry

myassignments-help数学代考价格说明

1、客户需提供物理代考的网址，相关账户，以及课程名称，Textbook等相关资料~客服会根据作业数量和持续时间给您定价~使收费透明，让您清楚的知道您的钱花在什么地方。

2、数学代写一般每篇报价约为600—1000rmb，费用根据持续时间、周作业量、成绩要求有所浮动(持续时间越长约便宜、周作业量越多约贵、成绩要求越高越贵)，报价后价格觉得合适，可以先付一周的款，我们帮你试做，满意后再继续，遇到Fail全额退款。

3、myassignments-help公司所有MATH作业代写服务支持付半款，全款，周付款，周付款一方面方便大家查阅自己的分数，一方面也方便大家资金周转，注意:每周固定周一时先预付下周的定金，不付定金不予继续做。物理代写一次性付清打9.5折。

Math作业代写、数学代写常见问题

myassignments-help擅长领域包含但不是全部: