电气工程代写|模拟电路代写analog circuit代考|Hi-Current Model

The high-current model (HiCUM) is a modification to the basic Gummel-Poon model we just discussed. A few highlights of the improvements over Gummel-Poon models are:

  • One of the problems with Gummel-Poon is the insensitivity to effects around the emitter periphery. These types of effects can play a significant role in modern high-speed transistors.
  • Another issue is the distributed nature of the external base-collector region.
  • Also the high-frequency small signal current crowding in the emitter needs to be addressed.
  • Other convenient improvements involve the base-emitter isolation capacitance and the BC oxide capacitance.
  • Compared to other models, the internal series resistance is taken into account by the model equations to some degree. This approach avoids the need for an internal resistor but also saves one node and makes the computational expense less.
  • There is the possibility of a substrate parasitic transistor turning on at very low CE voltages, referred to as saturation region or even hard saturation region. Such a parasitic transistor is being taken into account by a simple transport model.

VBIC is a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) model that was developed as a public domain replacement for the SPICE Gummel-Poon (SGP) model. VBIC is designed to be as similar as possible to the SGP model yet overcomes its major deficiencies. VBIC improvements on SGP:

  • Improved Early effect modeling
  • Quasi-saturation modeling
  • Parasitic substrate transistor modeling
  • Parasitic fixed (oxide) capacitance modeling
  • Includes an avalanche multiplication model
  • Improved temperature modeling
  • Base current decoupled from collector current
  • Electrothermal modeling
  • Smooth, continuous model

电气工程代写|模拟电路代写analog circuit代考|Historical Development

The 1960 s and 1970s saw many attempts in developing a way to build circuits using computer-aided design (CAD) techniques [1-8]. Many simulator codes in the 1960s were written under contract with the US Department of Defense and as such restricted in their public use. The design group at the University of California at Berkeley under Professor D.O. Pederson quickly became one of the leading teams proposing “Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis” or SPICE as a way to implement circuit network equations in a computer and solve those using numerical techniques. At the time, it was often considered a waste of time. The thinking was that computer adaptations would be too inaccurate and not capable of producing meaningful results. A real transistor implementation being simply too difficult was some of the comments, but this did not discourage Pederson and his students. We all owe a debt of gratitude to Pederson and his group for their unwavering belief in computer implementations using SPICE.

The first version of SPICE was presented at a conference in Waterloo, Canada, in 1973 [7]. It was written by Laurence Nagel, a student of Professor Pederson, and is a derivative of an earlier proprietary program called Computer Analysis of Nonlinear Circuits, Excluding Radiation (CANCER). Pederson insisted the program to be rewritten such that the proprietary restrictions would be removed and the code could be placed in the public domain. The code was somewhat limited in what devices could be included, and it also used a fixed timestep to advance the equations. The popularity of the program increased with the release of SPICE2 in 1975 [6]. Now the timestep was variable, and there were more circuit elements included in the code. The first versions of SPICE were written in FORTRAN with the latest release SPICE2g.6 in 1983. The next generation of SPICE, SPICE3, was released in 1989 and was written in $\mathrm{C}$ where a graphical interface using the $\mathrm{X}$ Window System was added. The fact that the code was in the public domain and could be purchased for a nominal fee covering the cost of a magnetic tape contributed to the huge popularity of the code. The author took advantage of this offer from the development team as late as the mid-1990s. Simulating a circuit became synonymous to “spice” a circuit.

The development of SPICE was named a milestone in 2011 by IEEE, and L. Nagel was awarded the Donald O. Pederson Award in Solid-State Circuits in 2019 for the development of the initial code.

电气工程代写|模拟电路代写analog circuit代考|EEE5320


电气工程代写|模拟电路代写analog circuit代考|Hi-Current Model

大电流模型 (HiCUM) 是对我们刚刚讨论的基本 Gummel-Poon 模型的修改。与 Gummel-Poon 模型相比,改进的几个亮点是:

  • Gummel-Poon 的问题之一是对发射器外围的影响不敏感。这些类型的效应可以在现代高速晶体管中发挥重要作用。
  • 另一个问题是外部基极集电极区域的分布式特性。
  • 还需要解决发射器中的高频小信号电流拥挤问题。
  • 其他方便的改进包括基极-发射极隔离电容和 BC 氧化物电容。
  • 与其他模型相比,模型方程在一定程度上考虑了内部串联电阻。这种方法避免了对内部电阻器的需求,但也节省了一个节点并减少了计算费用。
  • 衬底寄生晶体管有可能在非常低的 CE 电压下开启,称为饱和区或什至硬饱和区。一个简单的传输模型正在考虑这种寄生晶体管。

VBIC 是一种双极结型晶体管 (BJT) 模型,它是作为 SPICE Gummel-Poon (SGP) 模型的公共领域替代品而开发的。VBIC 的设计与 SGP 模型尽可能相似,但克服了其主要缺陷。VBIC 对 SGP 的改进:

  • 改进的早期效果建模
  • 准饱和建模
  • 寄生衬底晶体管建模
  • 寄生固定(氧化物)电容建模
  • 包括雪崩乘法模型
  • 改进的温度建模
  • 基极电流与集电极电流去耦
  • 电热建模
  • 平滑、连续的模型

电气工程代写|模拟电路代写analog circuit代考|Historical Development

在 1960 年代和 1970 年代,人们多次尝试开发一种使用计算机辅助设计 (CAD) 技术构建电路的方法 [1-8]。1960 年代的许多模拟器代码是根据与美国国防部的合同编写的,因此在公共使用中受到限制。DO Pederson 教授领导下的加州大学伯克利分校设计小组迅速成为提出“以集成电路为重点的仿真程序”或 SPICE 作为在计算机中实现电路网络方程并使用数值技术求解方程的主要团队之一。当时,这通常被认为是浪费时间。当时的想法是,计算机改编太不准确,无法产生有意义的结果。一些评论是真正的晶体管实现太难了,但这并没有让佩德森和他的学生气馁。我们都应该感谢 Pederson 和他的团队,因为他们坚定不移地相信使用 SPICE 实现计算机。

SPICE 的第一个版本于 1973 年在加拿大滑铁卢的一次会议上提出 [7]。它由 Pederson 教授的学生 Laurence Nagel 编写,是早期专有程序“排除辐射的非线性电路计算机分析 (CANCER)”的衍生程序。佩德森坚持要重写程序,这样专有限制将被删除,代码可以放在公共领域。该代码在可以包含哪些设备方面有所限制,并且它还使用固定的时间步长来推进方程。该程序的受欢迎程度随着 1975 年 SPICE2 的发布而增加 [6]。现在时间步长是可变的,代码中包含了更多的电路元素。SPICE 的第一个版本是用 FORTRAN 编写的,最新版本 SPICE2g.6 于 1983 年发布。C其中一个图形界面使用X添加了窗口系统。该代码属于公共领域,可以以象征性的费用购买,相当于磁带的成本,这一事实促成了该代码的巨大普及。直到 1990 年代中期,作者才利用了开发团队提供的这一优惠。模拟电路成为“调味”电路的代名词。

SPICE 的开发在 2011 年被 IEEE 评为里程碑,L. Nagel 因开发初始代码而在 2019 年获得了固态电路的唐纳德·O·佩德森奖。

电气工程代写|模拟电路代写analog circuit代考







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