## CS代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|Too Many Attributes

In Section 3-1, we discuss the importance of using preattentive attributes in data visualizations to make them easy to understand by the audience. However, using too many preattentive attributes in the same visualization can cause confusion for the audience. Consider again the case of Stanley Consulting Group. The company wants to examine how consultant characteristics such as job title, length of time with the company, and highest educational degree attained are related to the amount of billable hours filed by that consultant. Figure $3.36$ attempts to show this information.

All of the information the company wants to consider is shown in Figure 3.36: the number of billable hours for each consultant (on the vertical axis), the length of time at the company (on the horizontal axis), the consultant’s job title (indicated by the color of the marker in the chart), and the highest degree attained by the consultant (indicated by the shape of the marker in the chart). Figure $3.36$ uses several preattentive attributes from Section 3-1 including spatial positioning, shape, and color. However, because we are using many different preattentive attributes, this chart is difficult for an audience to process. It requires the audience to scan back and forth between the markers in the chart, the legends, and the vertical and horizontal axes. Therefore, this is probably not a particularly useful chart.

A better chart than what is shown in Figure $3.36$ would concentrate on examining fewer relationships and using fewer preattentive attributes. The exact choice of which features to show on the chart depends on the goals of the chart and needs of the audience. If it is more important to examine the relationship between billable hours, length of time at the company, and the job title of the consultant, then a chart such as the one shown in Figure $3.37$ is preferred.

## CS代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|Color Psychology and Color Symbolism

Color psychology is the study of the innate relationships between color and human behavior. Although human psychological reaction to various colors is not uniform, research suggests that people react with a high degree of consistency to various colors. For example, blue skies are thought to make us happier and more energized, while gray skies are thought to make us sadder and more lethargic.

The psychological categorization of colors as warm and cool is thought to be of particular importance. Cool hues are considered to be soothing, calming, and reassuring. On the other hand, warm hues evoke energy, passion, and danger. Purple, blue, and green hues are generally considered to be cool, and yellow, orange, and red hues are generally considered to be warm.
Color symbolism refers to the cultural meanings and significance associated with color. Although they are similar and it is sometimes difficult to discern between them, color psychology and color symbolism are distinct types of stimuli. Color psychology deals with instinctive relationships between color and human behavior, and color symbolism refers to learned relationships between color and human behavior. This implies that color symbolism can differ much more across cultures and can change over time. For example, blue symbolizes masculinity in Europe and North America, but it symbolizes femininity in China. People associate green with envy in the United States, but yellow symbolizes envy to the French and Germans. Yellow is associated with success and power in many African cultures, and it symbolizes refinement to the Japanese. The relationships between color and human behavior that are due to color psychology are much more pervasive and reliable than the relationships between color and human behavior that are due to color symbolism, and we must be careful when using color symbolism in selecting the color palette for a chart.
Although color psychology and color symbolism are distinct, their ramifications are similar. When selecting colors for a visual display, it is important to recognize that color can enhance or change audience perception, so you should carefully consider the consistence of the traits associated with the various colors you are considering with your message. Figure $4.5$ provides a summary of various traits that have been associated with different colors. ${ }^1$

# 数据可视化代考

## CS代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|Color Psychology and Color Symbolism

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