心理学代写|心理学代写Psychology代考|Psychology41

心理学代写|心理学代写Psychology代考|ATKINSON’S ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY

Achievement situations occur when people know their performances will be evaluated, either positively or negatively, against a standard of excellence, either by themselves or others (Atkinson, 1964). An example is a runner aiming to beat a personal best time for a particular distance. The personal best is the standard of excellence, and the person can evaluate if that time has been beaten or not. Atkinson’s (1964) theory was onc of the carly modcls sport psychology practitioners used to understand athletes’ motivation and behaviour in sport. Figure $3.1$ presents the theory’s major components. The model shows that the interactions between athletes’ personal characteristics and the situations they are in shape their emotions, thoughts, behaviours, and performances. Regarding personal characteristics, athletes have two motives: the motive to achieve success and the motive to avoid failure. The motive to achieve success describes people’s capacities to experience pride and satisfaction when they succeed at a task. Individuals with a high motivation to achieve success focus on the rewards they can get when achieving their goals. The motive to avoid failure is the capacity for athletes to react with shame and embarrassment when they fail to achieve their goals. Athletes with a high motivation to avoid failure tend to think about how awful it will be if they do poorly in a sporting event.

Figure $3.1$ also presents the situational factors in Atkinson’s (1964) model. The probability of success refers to athletes’ expectations they will achieve their goals. Associated with the probability of success is the incentive value of success, or how much pride individuals anticipate they will have if they reach their goals. In contrast, the probability of failure indicates individuals’ expectations they will not attain their goals. Mirroring the incentive value of success is the incentive value of loss, or the capacity for reacting with shame and embarrassment when athletes fail to attain their objectives.

心理学代写|心理学代写Psychology代考|SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY

Atkinson’s theory and Achievement Goal Theory describe athletes’ goals or what they hope to achieve, such as self-improvement or showing they are better than others. Self-Determination Theory separates (a) what people what to achieve (goal content), (b) from the processes by which they pursue their goals (e.g., do they feel in control of their choice to seek a goal), and (c) the degree that their goals satisfy the underlying human needs that all people share (Ryan \& Deci, 2017). Self-Determination Theory is a broad framework, consisting of several mini-theories explaining why humans engage in activities for no external rewards. The theory is relevant for sport because most people participate voluntarily, especially at the amateur level, and they often spend lots of time, money, and effort without the material gains or social status accorded to professional athletes. Sport provides opportunities to examine intrinsic motivation, a key concept in Self-Determination Theory. Intrinsic motivation is the desire to play sport for the experiences and satisfaction inherent to the activity. For example, a person may weight train because they enjoy the activity or because they find it satisfying to challenge themselves and successfully lift heavier weights.
Athletes’ levels of intrinsic motivation are influenced by the ways the social environment facilitates or hinders the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness.

Competence refers to the degree to which athletes think they can perform the sport and reach desired outcomes. Autonomy refers to the extent people believe they are free to choose whether or not they play a sport, rather than having their choice controlled by others. Relatedness refers to individuals’ thoughts regarding how well they are connected to and supported by the other folks in a group. Social environments facilitating the satisfaction of these three needs enhance people’s intrinsic motivation. Coaches, for example, who focus on skill improvement (and enhance perceived competence), who build team cohesion (and develop relatedness), and who allow athletes a voice in how the team operates (and encourage autonomy) enhance intrinsic motivation. Environments that thwart the satisfaction of these needs reduce intrinsic motivation. Coaches, for example, who control athletes’ behaviours through rewards and punishments (that reduce autonomy), who provide destructive criticism (that decrease perceived competence), and who ignore cohesion (and lower relatedness) reduce intrinsic motivation.

心理学代考

心理学代写|心理学代写心理学代考|阿特金森的成就动机理论

Achievement situations occur when people know their performances will be evaluated, either positively or negatively, against a standard of excellence, either by themselves or others (Atkinson, 1964). An example is a runner aiming to beat a personal best time for a particular distance. The personal best is the standard of excellence, and the person can evaluate if that time has been beaten or not. Atkinson’s (1964) theory was onc of the carly modcls sport psychology practitioners used to understand athletes’ motivation and behaviour in sport. Figure $3.1$ 介绍了该理论的主要组成部分。该模型表明，运动员的个人特征与所处环境之间的相互作用塑造了运动员的情绪、思想、行为和表现。就个人特征而言，运动员有两种动机:获得成功的动机和避免失败的动机。获得成功的动机描述了人们在成功完成一项任务时体验自豪和满足的能力。拥有获得成功的高动机的人关注的是他们在实现目标时所能得到的奖励。避免失败的动机是运动员在未能实现目标时羞愧和尴尬的反应能力。有强烈避免失败动机的运动员往往会想到，如果他们在体育比赛中表现不佳，那将是多么糟糕 图$3.1$还展示了Atkinson(1964)模型中的情景因素。成功概率是指运动员对实现目标的期望。与成功的可能性相关的是成功的激励价值，或个人预期，如果他们达到目标，他们会有多少骄傲。相反，失败的概率表明了个体对他们不会达到目标的预期。与成功的激励价值相对应的是失败的激励价值，或者是当运动员未能达到他们的目标时，以羞愧和尴尬的态度作出反应的能力

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