# 计算机代写|计算机网络代写computer networking代考|CSEE4119

## 计算机代写|计算机网络代写computer networking代考|The Internet Explosion: The 1990s

The 1990 s were ushered in with a number of events that symbolized the continued evolution and the soon-to-arrive commercialization of the Internet. ARPAnet, the progenitor of the Internet, ceased to exist. In 1991, NSFNET lifted its restrictions on the use of NSFNET for commercial purposes. NSFNET itself would be decommissioned in 1995, with Internet backbone traffic being carried by commercial Internet Service Providers.

The main event of the 1990s was to be the emergence of the World Wide Web application, which brought the Internet into the homes and businesses of millions of people worldwide. The Web served as a platform for enabling and deploying hundreds of new applications that we take for granted today, including search (e.g., Google and Bing) Internet commerce (e.g., Amazon and eBay) and social networks (e.g., Facebook).

The Web was invented at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee between 1989 and 1991 [Berners-Lee 1989], based on ideas originating in earlier work on hypertext from the 1940s by Vannevar Bush [Bush 1945] and since the 1960s by Ted Nelson [Xanadu 2012]. Berners-Lee and his associates developed initial versions of HTML, HTTP, a Web server, and a browser-the four key components of the Web. Around the end of 1993 there were about two hundred Web servers in operation, this collection of servers being just a harbinger of what was about to come. At about this time several researchers were developing Web browsers with GUI interfaces, including Marc Andreessen, who along with Jim Clark, formed Mosaic Communications, which later became Netscape Communications Corporation [Cusumano 1998; Quittner 1998]. By 1995, university students were using Netscape browsers to surf the Web on a daily basis. At about this time companies-big and small-began to operate Web servers and transact commerce over the Web. In 1996, Microsoft started to make browsers, which started the browser war between Netscape and Microsoft, which Microsoft won a few years later [Cusumano 1998].

The second half of the 1990 s was a period of tremendous growth and innovation for the Internet, with major corporations and thousands of startups creating Internet products and services. By the end of the millennium the Internet was supporting hundreds of popular applications, including four killer applications:

• E-mail, including attachments and Web-accessible e-mail
• The Web, including Web browsing and Internet commerce
• Instant messaging, with contact lists
• Peer-to-peer file sharing of MP3s, pioneered by Napster
Interestingly, the first two killer applications came from the research community, whereas the last two were created by a few young entrepreneurs.

The period from 1995 to 2001 was a roller-coaster ride for the Internet in the financial markets. Before they were even profitable, hundreds of Internet startups made initial public offerings and started to be traded in a stock market. Many companies were valued in the billions of dollars without having any significant revenue streams. The Internet stocks collapsed in 2000-2001, and many startups shut down. Nevertheless, a number of companies emerged as big winners in the Internet space, including Microsoft, Cisco, Yahoo, eBay, Google, and Amazon.

## 计算机代写|计算机网络代写computer networking代考|The New Millennium

In the first two decades of the 21st century, perhaps no other technology has transformed society more than the Internet along with Internet-connected smartphones. And innovation in computer networking continues at a rapid pace. Advances are being made on all fronts, including deployments of faster routers and higher transmission speeds in both access networks and in network backbones. But the following developments merit special attention:

• Since the beginning of the millennium, we have been seeing aggressive deployment of broadband Internet access to homes-not only cable modems and DSL but also fiber to the home, and now $5 \mathrm{G}$ fixed wireless as discussed in Section 1.2. This high-speed Internet access has set the stage for a wealth of video applications, including the distribution of user-generated video (for example, YouTube), on-demand streaming of movies and television shows (e.g., Netflix), and multiperson video conference (e.g., Skype, Facetime, and Google Hangouts).
• The increasing ubiquity of high-speed wireless Internet access is not only making it possible to remain constantly connected while on the move, but also enabling new location-specific applications such as Yelp, Tinder, and Waz. The number of wireless devices connecting to the Internet surpassed the number of wired devices in 2011. This high-speed wireless access has set the stage for the rapid emergence of hand-held computers (iPhones, Androids, iPads, and so on), which enjoy constant and untethered access to the Internet.
• Online social networks-such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and WeChat (hugely popular in China)-have created massive people networks on top of the Internet. Many of these social networks are extensively used for messaging as well as photo sharing. Many Internet users today “live” primarily within one or more social networks. Through their APIs, the online social networks create platforms for new networked applications, including mobile payments and distributed games.
• As discussed in Section 1.3.3, online service providers, such as Google and Microsoft, have deployed their own extensive private networks, which not only connect together their globally distributed data centers, but are used to bypass the Internet as much as possible by peering directly with lower-tier ISPs. As a result, Google provides search results and e-mail access almost instantaneously, as if their data centers were running within one’s own computer.
• Many Internet commerce companies are now running their applications in the “cloud”-such as in Amazon’s EC2, in Microsoft’s Azure, or in the Alibaba Cloud. Many companies and universities have also migrated their Internet applications (e.g., e-mail and Web hosting) to the cloud. Cloud companies not only provide applications scalable computing and storage environments, but also provide the applications implicit access to their high-performance private networks.

# 计算机网络代考

## 计算机代写|计算机网络代写计算机网络代考|互联网爆炸:20世纪90年代

20世纪90年代发生了一系列事件，这些事件象征着互联网的持续发展和即将到来的商业化。因特网的鼻祖阿帕网不复存在。1991年，NSFNET取消了对将其用于商业目的的限制。NSFNET本身将于1995年退役，互联网骨干流量将由商业互联网服务提供商承担

Web是由Tim Berners-Lee在1989年到1991年之间在欧洲核子研究中心(CERN)发明的[Berners-Lee 1989年]，其思想来源于20世纪40年代Vannevar Bush [Bush 1945年]和60年代Ted Nelson [Xanadu 2012年]对超文本的早期研究。Berners-Lee和他的同事开发了HTML、HTTP、Web服务器和浏览器的初始版本，这是Web的四个关键组件。大约在1993年底，大约有200台Web服务器在运行，这些服务器的集合只是即将到来的一个预兆。大约在这个时候，一些研究人员正在开发具有GUI界面的Web浏览器，包括马克·安德森，他与吉姆·克拉克一起成立了马赛克通信公司，后来成为网景通信公司[库苏马诺1998;Quittner 1998]。到1995年，大学生每天都在使用网景浏览器上网。大约在这个时候，大大小小的公司开始操作Web服务器并通过Web进行商务交易。1996年，微软开始生产浏览器，开启了网景和微软的浏览器大战，几年后微软赢了[Cusumano 1998]

20世纪90年代后半期是互联网飞速发展和创新的时期，大公司和成千上万的初创公司创造了互联网产品和服务。到千禧年结束时，Internet已经支持了数百个流行的应用程序，包括四个杀手级应用程序:

• 电子邮件，包括附件和可访问的电子邮件
• Web，包括Web浏览和互联网商务
• 即时消息，带有联系人列表
• mp3的点对点文件共享，由Napster开创
有趣的是，前两个致命的应用程序来自研究社区，而后两个是由几个年轻的企业家创建的 从1995年到2001年，互联网在金融市场上就像坐过山车一样。甚至在盈利之前，数百家互联网初创公司进行了首次公开募股(ipo)，并开始在股票市场交易。许多公司的估值达到数十亿美元，却没有任何重要的收入来源。2000年至2001年，互联网股票崩盘，许多初创公司倒闭。尽管如此，仍有一些公司成为互联网领域的大赢家，包括微软、思科、雅虎、eBay、谷歌和亚马逊 计算机代写|计算机网络代写计算机网络代考|The New Millennium . The New Millennium . The New Millennium 在21世纪的头20年里，也许没有其他技术比互联网和联网智能手机更能改变社会。计算机网络的创新仍在快速发展。在各个方面都取得了进展，包括在接入网和网络骨干中部署更快的路由器和更高的传输速度。但以下发展值得特别注意: 自千禧年开始以来，我们已经看到宽带互联网接入到家庭的积极部署——不仅是电缆调制解调器和DSL，而且还有光纤到家庭，现在是1.2节中讨论的$5 \mathrm{G}$固定无线。这种高速互联网接入为丰富的视频应用程序奠定了基础，包括用户生成的视频(例如YouTube)的分发、按需播放的电影和电视节目(例如Netflix)和多人视频会议(例如Skype、Facetime和谷歌Hangouts)。高速无线互联网接入的日益普及，不仅使人们在移动中也能随时保持连接，而且还使Yelp、Tinder和Waz等新的特定地点应用程序成为可能。2011年，连接到互联网的无线设备数量超过了有线设备的数量。这种高速无线接入为手持电脑(iphone、android、ipad等)的迅速出现创造了条件，这些电脑可以不受限制地持续访问互联网 在线社交网络——如Facebook, Instagram, Twitter和微信(在中国非常流行)——在互联网上创建了大量的人际网络。许多这样的社交网络被广泛用于信息传递和照片分享。今天，许多互联网用户主要“生活”在一个或多个社交网络中。通过它们的api，在线社交网络为新的网络应用程序(包括移动支付和分布式游戏)创造了平台。如1.3.3节所述，像谷歌和微软这样的在线服务提供商已经部署了自己广泛的专用网络，这些网络不仅将其全球分布的数据中心连接在一起，而且通过直接与较低级别isp对等来尽可能绕过Internet。因此，谷歌几乎可以立即提供搜索结果和电子邮件访问，就好像它们的数据中心是在自己的计算机中运行一样。许多互联网商务公司现在都在“云”上运行他们的应用程序，比如亚马逊的EC2，微软的Azure，或者阿里巴巴的云。许多公司和大学也将他们的互联网应用程序(例如，电子邮件和Web托管)迁移到云上。

.云公司不仅为应用程序提供可扩展的计算和存储环境，还为应用程序提供对其高性能专用网络的隐式访问

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