相信许多留学生对数学代考都不陌生,国外许多大学都引进了网课的学习模式。网课学业有利有弊,学生不需要到固定的教室学习,只需要登录相应的网站研讨线上课程即可。但也正是其便利性,线上课程的数量往往比正常课程多得多。留学生课业深重,时刻名贵,既要学习知识,又要结束多种类型的课堂作业,physics作业代写,物理代写,论文写作等;网课考试很大程度增加了他们的负担。所以,您要是有这方面的困扰,不要犹疑,订购myassignments-help代考渠道的数学代考服务,价格合理,给你前所未有的学习体会。

我们的数学代考服务适用于那些对课程结束没有掌握,或许没有满足的时刻结束网课的同学。高度匹配专业科目,按需结束您的网课考试、数学代写需求。担保买卖支持,100%退款保证,免费赠送Turnitin检测报告。myassignments-help的Math作业代写服务,是你留学路上忠实可靠的小帮手!


经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Substitution at Work

In the first of these examples, we focus on the role of substitution. When the price of a good or service goes up, rational consumers generally turn to less expensive substitutes. Can’t meet the payments on a new car? Then buy a used one, or rent an apartment on a bus or subway line. French restaurants too pricey? Then go out for Chinese, or eat at home more often. National Football League tickets too high? Watch the game on television, or read a book. Can’t afford a book? Check one out of the library, or download some reading matter from the Internet. Once you begin to see substitution at work, you’ll be amazed by the number and richness of the examples that confront you every day.

Among his many residences, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos owns a 29,000-square-foot home in Medina, Washington. Bezos also owns a 17,000-square-foot apartment in Manhattan. Although both residences are enormous, Bezos’s apartment in Manhattan is much smaller than his home in Medina. Bezos is one of the richest people in the world, so why would he choose to purchase a much smaller home in Manhattan than Medina?

For people trying to decide how large a home to buy, the most obvious difference between Manhattan and Medina is the huge difference in housing prices. The cost of land alone is several times higher in Manhattan than in Medina, and construction costs are also much higher. So even though Bezos could afford to purchase a 29,000-square-foot home in Manhattan, housing prices are so high that he simply chooses to purchase a smaller home and spend his fortune in other ways.

Here we note in passing that an additional factor in Bezos’s decision may have been the link between context and evaluation: A house seems small only if it is small relative to other houses in the same local environment. Because Manhattan prices are so high, others choose to build smaller houses there, too, so a 17,000-square-foot house in Manhattan is a larger dwelling, in relative terms, than a 29,000-square-foot house in Medina. We will discuss this point more thoroughly in Chapter 8, An Introduction to Behavioral Economics.

An especially vivid illustration of substitution occurred during the late 1970 s, when fuel shortages brought on by interruptions in the supply of oil from the Middle East led to sharp increases in the price of gasoline and other fuels. In a variety of ways-some straightforward, others remarkably ingenious-consumers changed their behavior to economize on the use of energy. They formed carpools; switched to public transportation; bought four-cylinder cars; moved closer to work; took fewer trips; turned down their thermostats; installed insulation, storm windows, and solar heaters; and bought more efficient appliances. Many people even moved farther south to escape high winter heating bills.

As the next example points out, consumers not only abandon a good in favor of substitutes when it gets more expensive, but they also return to that good when prices return to their original levels.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Elasticity and Total Expenditure

The pattern observed in the preceding example holds true in general. For a straight-line demand curve, total expenditure is highest at the price that lies on the midpoint of the demand curve.

Bearing in mind these observations about how expenditure varies with price, let’s return to the question of how the effect of a price change on total expenditure depends on the price elasticity of demand. Suppose, for example, that the business manager of a rock band knows she can sell 5,000 tickets to the band’s weekly summer concerts if she sets the price at $\$ 20$ per ticket. If the elasticity of demand for tickets is equal to 3 , will total ticket revenue go up or down in response to a 10 percent increase in the price of tickets?

Total revenue from tickets sold is currently $(\$ 20 /$ ticket $) \times(5,000$ tickets $/$ week $)=$ $\$ 100,000$ per week. The fact that the price elasticity of demand for tickets is 3 implies that a 10 percent increase in price will produce a 30 percent reduction in the number of tickets sold, which means that quantity will fall to 3,500 tickets per week. Total expenditure on tickets will therefore fall to $(3,500$ tickets/week $) \times(\$ 22 /$ ticket $)=$ $\$ 77,000$ per week, which is significantly less than the current spending total.

What would have happened to total expenditure if the band manager had reduced ticket prices by 10 percent, from $\$ 20$ to $\$ 18$ ? Again assuming a price elasticity of 3 , the result would have been a 30 percent increase in tickets sold-from 5,000 per week to 6,500 per week. The resulting total expenditure would have been ( $\$ 18$ / ticket $) \times(6,500$ tickets $/$ week $)=\$ 117,000$ per week, significantly more than the current total.

These examples illustrate the following important rule about how price changes affect total expenditure for an elastically demanded good:

Rule 1: When price elasticity of demand is greater than 1, changes in price and changes in total expenditure always move in opposite directions.

Let’s look at the intuition behind this rule. Total expenditure is the product of price and quantity. For an elastically demanded product, the percentage change in quantity will be larger than the corresponding percentage change in price. Thus the change in quantity will more than offset the change in revenue per unit sold.

Now let’s see how total spending responds to a price increase when demand is inelastic with respect to price. Consider a case like the one just considered except that the elasticity of demand for tickets is not 3 but $0.5$. How will total expenditure respond to a 10 percent increase in ticket prices? This time the number of tickets sold will fall by only 5 percent to 4,750 tickets per week, which means that total expenditure on tickets will rise to $(4,750$ tickets/week $) \times(\$ 22$ /ticket $)=\$ 104,500$ per week, or $\$ 4,500$ per week more than the current expenditure level.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON106

微观经济学代考


经济代写|微观经济学代写微观经济学代考|工作中的替代


在第一个例子中,我们关注替换的作用。当一种商品或服务的价格上涨时,理性的消费者通常会转向更便宜的替代品。买不起新车?然后买一辆二手的,或者租一套公交或地铁上的公寓。法国餐厅太贵?那就多出去吃中餐,或者在家吃饭。国家橄榄球联盟门票太高?在电视上看比赛,或者看书。买不起书?从图书馆借一本,或者从网上下载一些阅读材料。一旦你开始在工作中看到替代,你就会惊讶于你每天面对的例子的数量和丰富程度


亚马逊首席执行官杰夫·贝佐斯的众多住宅中,有一座位于华盛顿麦地那的2.9万平方英尺的住宅。贝佐斯在曼哈顿还有一套1.7万平方英尺的公寓。虽然这两处住所都很大,但贝佐斯在曼哈顿的公寓比他在麦地那的家要小得多。贝佐斯是世界上最富有的人之一,那么他为什么会选择在曼哈顿买一个比麦地那小得多的房子呢?


对于那些试图决定买多大房子的人来说,曼哈顿和麦地那最明显的区别就是房价的巨大差异。曼哈顿仅土地成本就比麦地那高几倍,建筑成本也高得多。因此,尽管贝佐斯有能力在曼哈顿购买一套29,000平方英尺的房子,但由于房价太高,他只能选择购买一套较小的房子,把他的财富花在其他方面


在这里,我们顺便指出,贝佐斯决定的另一个因素可能是环境和评价之间的联系:只有当一幢房子相对于同一当地环境中的其他房子小时,它才显得小。因为曼哈顿的房价太高,其他人也会选择在那里建造较小的房子,所以相对而言,曼哈顿1.7万平方英尺的房子比麦地那2.9万平方英尺的房子更大。我们将在第8章“行为经济学导论”中更深入地讨论这一点


关于替代的一个特别生动的例子发生在20世纪70年代末,当时中东石油供应的中断导致燃料短缺,导致汽油和其他燃料的价格急剧上涨。消费者通过各种方式——有些直接,有些非常巧妙——改变他们的行为以节约能源使用。他们合伙用车;转向公共交通;买了四缸汽车;搬到离工作地点更近的地方;减少旅行次数;调低他们的恒温器;安装绝缘材料、防风窗和太阳能加热器;购买了更高效的电器。为了逃避冬季高昂的取暖费,许多人甚至搬到了更远的南方


正如下一个例子所指出的,当一种商品变得更贵时,消费者不仅放弃它而选择替代品,而且当价格回到原来的水平时,他们也会重新购买那种商品

经济代写|微观经济学代写微观经济学代考|弹性和总支出

.


在前面的例子中观察到的模式在一般情况下是正确的。对于直线需求曲线,总支出在位于需求曲线中点的价格处最高


记住这些关于支出如何随价格变化的观察,让我们回到价格变化对总支出的影响如何取决于需求的价格弹性这个问题。例如,假设一个摇滚乐队的业务经理知道,如果将每张票的价格定为$\$ 20$,她可以卖出5000张该乐队夏季每周音乐会的门票。如果票务需求的弹性等于3,总票务收入会随着票务价格上涨10%而上升还是下降?


门票销售的总收入目前是$(\$ 20 /$票$) \times(5,000$票$/$周$)=$$\$ 100,000$每周。门票需求的价格弹性为3这一事实意味着,价格每上涨10%,售出的门票数量将减少30%,这意味着数量将下降到每周3500张。因此,机票的总支出将降至$(3,500$票/周$) \times(\$ 22 /$票$)=$$\$ 77,000$ /周,这明显低于目前的支出总额

如果乐队经理将票价从$\$ 20$降至$\$ 18$,降低10%,总支出会发生什么变化?同样假设价格弹性为3,结果将是30%的门票销售增长——从每周5000张增加到每周6500张。由此产生的总开支将是($\$ 18$ /门票$) \times(6,500$门票$/$周$)=\$ 117,000$每周,明显多于目前的总数。


这些例子说明了以下关于价格变化如何影响弹性需求商品的总支出的重要规则

规则一:当需求的价格弹性大于1时,价格的变化和总支出的变化总是相反的方向


让我们看看这条规则背后的直觉。总支出是价格和数量的乘积。对于弹性需求的产品,数量变化的百分比将大于相应的价格变化百分比。因此,数量的变化将超过单位销售收入的变化


现在让我们看看当需求相对于价格无弹性时,总支出如何响应价格上涨。考虑一个像刚才考虑的例子,除了门票的需求弹性不是3,而是$0.5$。总支出将如何应对10%的票价上涨?这一次,售出的门票数量将仅下降5%,至每周4750张,这意味着门票的总支出将上升到$(4,750$张/周$) \times(\$ 22$ /票$)=\$ 104,500$ /周,或$\$ 4,500$ /周比目前的支出水平

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考

myassignments-help数学代考价格说明

1、客户需提供物理代考的网址,相关账户,以及课程名称,Textbook等相关资料~客服会根据作业数量和持续时间给您定价~使收费透明,让您清楚的知道您的钱花在什么地方。

2、数学代写一般每篇报价约为600—1000rmb,费用根据持续时间、周作业量、成绩要求有所浮动(持续时间越长约便宜、周作业量越多约贵、成绩要求越高越贵),报价后价格觉得合适,可以先付一周的款,我们帮你试做,满意后再继续,遇到Fail全额退款。

3、myassignments-help公司所有MATH作业代写服务支持付半款,全款,周付款,周付款一方面方便大家查阅自己的分数,一方面也方便大家资金周转,注意:每周固定周一时先预付下周的定金,不付定金不予继续做。物理代写一次性付清打9.5折。

Math作业代写、数学代写常见问题

留学生代写覆盖学科?

代写学科覆盖Math数学,经济代写,金融,计算机,生物信息,统计Statistics,Financial Engineering,Mathematical Finance,Quantitative Finance,Management Information Systems,Business Analytics,Data Science等。代写编程语言包括Python代写、Physics作业代写、物理代写、R语言代写、R代写、Matlab代写、C++代做、Java代做等。

数学作业代写会暴露客户的私密信息吗?

我们myassignments-help为了客户的信息泄露,采用的软件都是专业的防追踪的软件,保证安全隐私,绝对保密。您在我们平台订购的任何网课服务以及相关收费标准,都是公开透明,不存在任何针对性收费及差异化服务,我们随时欢迎选购的留学生朋友监督我们的服务,提出Math作业代写、数学代写修改建议。我们保障每一位客户的隐私安全。

留学生代写提供什么服务?

我们提供英语国家如美国、加拿大、英国、澳洲、新西兰、新加坡等华人留学生论文作业代写、物理代写、essay润色精修、课业辅导及网课代修代写、Quiz,Exam协助、期刊论文发表等学术服务,myassignments-help拥有的专业Math作业代写写手皆是精英学识修为精湛;实战经验丰富的学哥学姐!为你解决一切学术烦恼!

物理代考靠谱吗?

靠谱的数学代考听起来简单,但实际上不好甄别。我们能做到的靠谱,是把客户的网课当成自己的网课;把客户的作业当成自己的作业;并将这样的理念传达到全职写手和freelancer的日常培养中,坚决辞退糊弄、不守时、抄袭的写手!这就是我们要做的靠谱!

数学代考下单流程

提早与客服交流,处理你心中的顾虑。操作下单,上传你的数学代考/论文代写要求。专家结束论文,准时交给,在此过程中可与专家随时交流。后续互动批改

付款操作:我们数学代考服务正常多种支付方法,包含paypal,visa,mastercard,支付宝,union pay。下单后与专家直接互动。

售后服务:论文结束后保证完美经过turnitin查看,在线客服全天候在线为您服务。如果你觉得有需求批改的当地能够免费批改,直至您对论文满意为止。如果上交给教师后有需求批改的当地,只需求告诉您的批改要求或教师的comments,专家会据此批改。

保密服务:不需求提供真实的数学代考名字和电话号码,请提供其他牢靠的联系方法。我们有自己的工作准则,不会泄露您的个人信息。

myassignments-help擅长领域包含但不是全部:

myassignments-help服务请添加我们官网的客服或者微信/QQ,我们的服务覆盖:Assignment代写、Business商科代写、CS代考、Economics经济学代写、Essay代写、Finance金融代写、Math数学代写、report代写、R语言代考、Statistics统计学代写、物理代考、作业代写、加拿大代考、加拿大统计代写、北美代写、北美作业代写、北美统计代考、商科Essay代写、商科代考、数学代考、数学代写、数学作业代写、physics作业代写、物理代写、数据分析代写、新西兰代写、澳洲Essay代写、澳洲代写、澳洲作业代写、澳洲统计代写、澳洲金融代写、留学生课业指导、经济代写、统计代写、统计作业代写、美国Essay代写、美国代考、美国数学代写、美国统计代写、英国Essay代写、英国代考、英国作业代写、英国数学代写、英国统计代写、英国金融代写、论文代写、金融代考、金融作业代写。