# 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1010

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Production in the Short Run

To gain a deeper understanding of the origins of the supply curve, it is helpful to consider a perfectly competitive firm confronting the decision of how much to produce. The firm in question is a small company that makes glass bottles. To keep things simple, suppose that the silica required for making bottles is available free of charge from a nearby desert and that the only costs incurred by the firm are the wages it pays its employees and the lease payment on its bottle-making machine. The employees and the machine are the firm’s only two factors of production-inputs used to produce goods and services. In more complex examples, factors of production also might include land, structures, entrepreneurship, and possibly others, but for the moment we consider only labor and capital.

When we refer to the short run, we mean a period of time during which at least some of the firm’s factors of production cannot be varied. For our bottle maker, we will assume that the number of employees can be varied on short notice but that the capacity of its bottle-making machine can be altered only with significant delay. For this firm, then, the short run is simply that period of time during which the firm cannot alter the capacity of its bottle-making machine. By contrast, when we speak of the long run, we refer to a time period of sufficient length that all the firm’s factors of production are variable.

Table $4.1$ shows how the company’s bottle production depends on the number of hours its employees spend on the job each day. The output-employment relationship described in Table $4.1$ exhibits a pattern that is common to many such relationships. Each time we move duwn one row in the table, output gruws by 100 bottles per day, but note in the right column that it takes larger and larger increases in the amount of labor to achieve this increase. Economists refer to this pattern as the law of diminishing returns, and it always refers to situations in which at least some factors of production are fixed, which can be stated as follows:

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Price Equals Marginal Cost: The Seller’s Supply Rule

Marginal cost is by far the most important cost concept you will encounter in economics. As the name suggests, it is the rate at which the firm’s total costs change when it expands its production.

The observation that the profit-maximizing quantity for a firm to supply does not depend on its fixed costs is not an idiosyncrasy of Example 4.5. That it holds true in general is an immediate consequence of the Cost-Benefit Principle, which says that a firm should increase its output if, and only if, the extra benefit exceeds the extra cost. If the firm expands production by 100 bottles per day, its benefit is the extra revenue it gets, which in this case is simply the price of 100 bottles. The cost of expanding production by 100 bottles is by definition the marginal cost of producing 100 bottles-the amount by which total cost increases when bottle production rises by 100 per day. The Cost-Benefit Principle thus tells us that the perfectly competitive firm should keep expanding production as long as the price of the product is greater than marginal cost.

When the law of diminishing returns applies (that is, when some factors of production are fixed), marginal cost goes up as the firm expands production. Under these circumstances, the firm’s best option is to supply that level of output for which price and marginal cost are exactly equal.

Note in Example $4.5$ that if the company’s capital cost had been any more than $\$ 70$per day, it would have made a loss at every possible level of output. As long as it still had to pay its capital cost, however, its best bet would have been to continue producing 400 bottles per day. It is better, after all, to experience a smaller loss than a larger one. If a firm in that situation expected conditions to remain the same, though, it would want to get out of the bottle business as soon as its equipment lease expired. # 微观经济学代考 ## 经济代写|微观经济学代写微观经济学代考|短期生产 为了更深入地理解供给曲线的起源，考虑一个完全竞争的公司面临生产多少的决定是有帮助的。这家公司是一家生产玻璃瓶的小公司。为了简单起见，假设制造瓶子所需的二氧化硅可以从附近的沙漠免费获得，而公司产生的唯一成本是支付给员工的工资和瓶子制造机器的租赁费。员工和机器是公司仅有的两个生产要素——用于生产商品和服务的投入。在更复杂的例子中，生产要素也可能包括土地、结构、企业家精神，可能还有其他因素，但目前我们只考虑劳动力和资本 当我们提到短期时，我们指的是至少公司的一些生产要素不能改变的一段时间。对于我们的制瓶商，我们会假设员工数量可以在短时间内改变，但制瓶机的产能只能在显著延迟的情况下改变。因此，对于这家公司来说，短期只是一段时间，在这段时间内，该公司不能改变其制瓶机的产能。相比之下，当我们谈到长期时，我们指的是一段足够长的时间，使公司的所有生产要素都是可变的 表$4.1$显示了该公司的瓶子生产如何依赖于其员工每天花在工作上的小时数。表$4.1$中描述的产出-就业关系显示了许多这类关系的共同模式。每次我们移动表中的一行，每天输出100瓶粗饲料，但请注意，在右列中，要实现这一增长需要越来越多的劳动力。经济学家将这种模式称为收益递减法则，它通常指的是至少部分生产要素是固定的情况，具体表述如下 ## 经济代写|微观经济学代写微观经济学代考|价格等于边际成本:卖方的供应规则 边际成本是迄今为止你在经济学中遇到的最重要的成本概念。顾名思义，它是指当企业扩大生产时，其总成本的变化率 一个公司供给的利润最大化的数量不依赖于它的固定成本，这不是例4.5的特性。一般来说，这是成本效益原则的直接结果，该原则认为，当且仅当额外收益超过额外成本时，企业应该增加产出。如果这家公司每天增加100瓶的产量，它的收益就是它获得的额外收入，在这种情况下，这仅仅是100瓶的价格。根据定义，生产100瓶酒的成本就是生产100瓶酒的边际成本——当每天增加100瓶酒的产量时，总成本增加的金额。因此，成本-收益原理告诉我们，只要产品的价格大于边际成本，完全竞争企业就应该继续扩大生产 当收益递减定律适用时(也就是说，当一些生产要素是固定的)，边际成本随着公司扩大生产而上升。在这种情况下，企业的最佳选择是提供价格和边际成本完全相等的产出水平 在例子$4.5$中请注意，如果公司的资本成本超过每天$\$70$，那么在每一个可能的产出水平上都将出现亏损。然而，只要它还需要支付资本成本，它最好的选择就是继续每天生产400瓶。毕竟，经历较小的损失比经历较大的损失要好。但是，如果一家公司在这种情况下期望条件保持不变，那么一旦设备租赁期满，它就会希望尽快退出瓶子业务

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