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经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|INDIVIDUAL AND MARKET SUPPLY CURVES

The relationship between the individual and market supply curves for a product is analogous to the relationship between the individual and market demand curves. The quantity that corresponds to a given price on the market demand curve is the sum of the quantities demanded at that price by all individual buyers in the market. Likewise, the quantity that corresponds to any given price on the market supply curve is the sum of the quantities supplied at that price by all individual sellers in the market.
Suppose, for example, that the supply side of the recycling-services market consists only of Ushi and his identical twin, Yoshi, whose individual supply curve is the same as Ushi’s. To generate the market supply curve, we first put the individual supply curves side by side, as shown in Figure 4.2(a) and (b). We then announce a price, and for that price add the individual quantities supplied to obtain the total quantity supplied in the market. Thus, at a price of 3 cents per container, both Ushi and Yoshi wish to recycle 1,500 cans per day, so the total market supply at that price is 3,000 cans per day. Proceeding in like manner for a sequence of prices, we generate the market supply curve for recycling services shown in Figure 4.2(c). This is the same process of horizontal summation by which we generated market demand curves from individual demand curves in Chapter 3, Demand and Elasticity.

Alternatively, if there were many suppliers with individual supply curves identical to Ushi’s, we could generate the market supply curve by simply multiplying each quantity value on the individual supply curve by the number of suppliers. For instance, Figure $4.3$ shows the supply curve for a market in which there are 1,000 suppliers with individual supply curves like Ushi’s.

Why do individual supply curves tend to be upward-sloping? One explanation is that recyclers will tend to be more productive if they always look first for the containers that are easiest to find-such as those in plain view in readily accessible locations. As the redemption price rises, it will pay to incur the additional cost of searching farther from the beaten path.

If all individuals have identical upward-sloping supply curves, the market supply curve will be upward-sloping as well. But there is an important additional reason for the positive slope of market supply curves: Individual suppliers generally differ with respect to their opportunity costs of supplying the product. Thus, whereas people facing unattractive employment opportunities in other occupations may be willing to recycle soft drink containers even when the redemption price is low, those with more attractive options will recycle only if the redemption price is relatively high.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Profit Maximization

Notwithstanding this rich variety of motives, most goods and services that are offered for sale in a market economy are sold by private firms whose main reason for existing is to earn profit for their owners. A firm’s profit is the difference between the total revenue it receives from the sale of its product and all costs it incurs in producing it.
A profit-maximizing firm is one whose primary goal is to maximize the amount of profit it earns. The supply curves that economists use in standard supply and demand theory are based on the assumption that goods are sold by profit-maximizing firms in perfectly competitive markets, which are markets in which individual firms have no influence over the market prices of the products they sell. Because of their inability to influence market price, perfectly competitive firms are often described as price takers.

The following four conditions are characteristic of markets that are perfectly competitive:

  1. All firms sell the same standardized product. Although this condition is almost never literally satisfied, it holds as a rough approximation for many markets. Thus, the markets for concrete building blocks of a given size, or for apples of a given variety, may be described in this way. This condition implies that buyers are willing to switch from one seller to another if by so doing they can obtain a lower price.
  2. The market has many buyers and sellers, each of which buys or sells only a small fraction of the total quantity exchanged. This condition implies that individual buyers and sellers will be price takers, regarding the market price of the product as a fixed number beyond their control. For example, a single farmer’s decision to plant fewer acres of wheat would have no appreciable impact on the market price of wheat, just as an individual consumer’s decision to become a vegetarian would have no perceptible effect on the price of beef.
  1. Productive resources are mobile. This condition implies that if a potential seller identifies a profitable business opportunity in a market, he or she will be able to obtain the labor, capital, and other productive resources necessary to enter that market. By the same token, sellers who are dissatisfied with the opportunities they confront in a given market are free to leave that market and employ their resources elsewhere.
  2. Buyers and sellers are well informed. This condition implies that buyers and sellers are aware of the relevant opportunities available to them. If that were not so, buyers would be unable to seek out sellers who charge the lowest prices, and sellers would have no means of deploying their resources in the markets in which they would earn the most profit.

The market for wheat closely approximates a perfectly competitive market. The market for operating systems for desktop computers, however, does not. Roughly 80 percent of desktop operating systems are sold by Microsoft, giving the company enough influence in that market to have significant control over the price it charges. For example, if it were to raise the price of its latest edition of Windows by, say, 20 percent, some consumers might switch to macOS or Linux, and others might postpone their purchase; but many-perhaps even most-would continue with their plans to buy Windows.

By contrast, if an individual wheat farmer were to charge even a few cents more than the current market price for a bushel of wheat, he wouldn’t be able to sell any of his wheat at all. And since he can sell as much wheat as he wishes at the market price, he has no motive to charge less.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|BU1003

微观经济学代考


经济代写|微观经济学代写微观经济学代考|个人和市场供给曲线


一种产品的个人和市场供给曲线之间的关系类似于个人和市场需求曲线之间的关系。市场需求曲线上某一价格对应的需求量是市场上所有个体买家在该价格下需求量的总和。同样地,市场供给曲线上任意给定价格对应的数量是市场上所有个体卖方在该价格下提供的数量的总和。例如,假设回收服务市场的供给端仅由Ushi和他的同卵双胞胎Yoshi组成,他们的个人供给曲线与Ushi的相同。为了生成市场供给曲线,我们首先将各个供给曲线并排放置,如图4.2(a)和(b)所示。然后我们宣布一个价格,并将该价格加上各个供给量,从而得到市场上的总供给量。因此,在每个集装箱3美分的价格下,Ushi和Yoshi都希望每天回收1500罐,所以这个价格下的市场总供应量是每天3000罐。以同样的方式对一系列价格进行处理,我们生成回收服务的市场供应曲线,如图4.2(c)所示。这与我们在《需求与弹性》第3章中从单个需求曲线生成市场需求曲线的横向求和过程是相同的


或者,如果有许多供应商,它们各自的供给曲线与Ushi的曲线相同,我们可以通过简单地将单个供给曲线上的每个数量值乘以供应商的数量来生成市场供给曲线。例如,图$4.3$显示了一个市场的供给曲线,其中有1000个供应商,每个供应商的供给曲线都像Ushi的一样


为什么个别供给曲线倾向于向上倾斜?一种解释是,如果回收者总是先寻找那些最容易找到的容器,比如那些在显眼的地方容易找到的容器,那么他们往往会更有效率。当赎回价格上升时,它将支付额外的成本,从被打破的路径搜索更远


如果所有个体都有相同的向上倾斜的供给曲线,那么市场供给曲线也将是向上倾斜的。但是,市场供给曲线的正斜率还有一个重要的额外原因:单个供应商在供应产品的机会成本方面一般不同。因此,即使在回收价格较低的情况下,在其他职业中面临无吸引力就业机会的人也可能愿意回收软饮料容器,而那些有更有吸引力的选择的人则只会在回收价格相对较高的情况下回收软饮料容器

经济代写|微观经济学代写微观经济学代考|利润最大化


尽管动机多种多样,在市场经济中出售的大多数商品和服务都是由私人公司出售的,这些公司存在的主要原因是为其所有者赚取利润。一个公司的利润是它从销售其产品中获得的总收入与生产该产品所产生的所有成本之间的差额。利润最大化公司的主要目标是使其赚取的利润最大化。经济学家在标准供求理论中使用的供给曲线是基于这样一个假设:在完全竞争市场中,商品是由利润最大化的公司销售的,在完全竞争市场中,个体公司对其所售产品的市场价格没有任何影响。由于完全竞争企业无法影响市场价格,它们常被描述为价格接受者


以下四个条件是完全竞争市场的特征:


所有的公司都销售同样的标准化产品。尽管这一条件几乎从未真正得到满足,但对于许多市场来说,这是一个粗略的近似。因此,一定大小的混凝土建筑块的市场,或一定种类的苹果的市场,可以这样描述。这个条件意味着买家愿意从一个卖家转到另一个卖家,如果这样做他们可以获得更低的价格。市场上有许多买方和卖方,每一方只买卖交易总量的一小部分。这种情况意味着,个体买家和卖家将成为价格接受者,将产品的市场价格视为一个他们无法控制的固定数字。例如,一个农民决定种植更少的小麦对小麦的市场价格没有明显的影响,正如一个消费者决定成为素食者对牛肉的价格没有明显的影响一样

  1. 生产资源是可移动的。这个条件意味着,如果一个潜在的卖家在一个市场中发现了一个有利可图的商业机会,他或她将能够获得进入该市场所需的劳动力、资本和其他生产资源。出于同样的原因,如果卖家对他们在某一特定市场所面临的机会不满意,他们可以自由地离开该市场,把他们的资源用在其他地方。买方和卖方消息灵通。这个条件意味着买方和卖方都知道他们可以获得的相关机会。如果不是这样,买方将无法找到要价最低的卖方,而卖方将没有办法在他们能赚取最大利润的市场上配置他们的资源小麦市场非常接近完全竞争市场。然而,台式电脑操作系统的市场却不一样。大约80%的桌面操作系统是由微软销售的,这使该公司在这个市场上有足够的影响力,可以在定价上有很大的控制权。例如,如果微软将其最新版Windows的价格提高20%,一些消费者可能会转向macOS或Linux,而另一些消费者可能会推迟购买;但是许多人——也许甚至大多数人——会继续他们购买Windows的计划相比之下,如果一个小麦农民对一蒲式耳小麦收取比当前市场价格多几美分的价格,他将根本无法卖出他的小麦。由于他可以按市场价格出售他想要的小麦,他没有动机降低要价
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考

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