相信许多留学生对数学代考都不陌生,国外许多大学都引进了网课的学习模式。网课学业有利有弊,学生不需要到固定的教室学习,只需要登录相应的网站研讨线上课程即可。但也正是其便利性,线上课程的数量往往比正常课程多得多。留学生课业深重,时刻名贵,既要学习知识,又要结束多种类型的课堂作业,physics作业代写,物理代写,论文写作等;网课考试很大程度增加了他们的负担。所以,您要是有这方面的困扰,不要犹疑,订购myassignments-help代考渠道的数学代考服务,价格合理,给你前所未有的学习体会。

我们的数学代考服务适用于那些对课程结束没有掌握,或许没有满足的时刻结束网课的同学。高度匹配专业科目,按需结束您的网课考试、数学代写需求。担保买卖支持,100%退款保证,免费赠送Turnitin检测报告。myassignments-help的Math作业代写服务,是你留学路上忠实可靠的小帮手!


经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Training and Post-Training Wage Increases

Consider a situation in which worker-mobility costs are relatively low, and the employer is considering bearing all the costs of training. With investment costs to recoup, the employer would be unable to raise wages very much after training and still have incentives to invest. We know that higher wages reduce the probability of a worker quitting, so by failing to increase the wage much after training, the employer would put its investment at risk. Trained workers might decide to quit at even a small provocation (the boss is in a bad mood one day, for example, or they are asked to work overtime for a while), and without some assurance that trained employees will stay, the firm would be reluctant to make a training investment for which it bore all the costs.

Conversely, if a firm’s employees paid for their own training by taking a lower wage than they could get elsewhere during the training period, they would require the benefits of a much higher post-training wage to make employment at the firm attractive. If they were to get all of their improved marginal revenue product in the form of a wage increase, however, an employer that finds it relatively inexpensive to hire and fire workers would have little to lose by firing them at the smallest provocation-and if they get fired, their investment is destroyed!

Thus, if labor market frictions are otherwise small, the best way to provide incentives for on-the-job training is for employers and employees to share the costs and returns of the investment. If employees pay part of these costs, the post-training wage can be increased more than if employers bear all the training costs-and the increased posttraining wage protects firms’ investments by reducing the chances trained workers will quit. The training costs borne by employers must be recouped by not raising the posttraining wage very much, but this condition helps protect workers’ investments by making it attractive for firms to retain them unless the provocation is major (we discuss the issue of layoffs in more detail a bit later in this chapter). Put differently, if both employers and employees share in the costs of training, and thus share in the returns, they both have something to lose if the employment relationship is ended in the posttraining period.

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Employer Training Investments and Recessionary Layoffs

We have seen that employers will have incentives to invest in worker training only when the post-training marginal revenue productivity is expected to be sufficiently above the wage so that the investment returns are attractive. Suppose a firm has made the investment but at some point thereafter finds that its workers’ marginal revenue productivity falls below what it expected because of a business downturn (a “recession”). If it cannot lower wages for one reason or another (we will discuss why wages might be inflexible in a downward direction in chapter 14), will the firm want to lay off its trained workers?

In general, firms will not want to lay off their workers as long as the workers are bringing in revenues that are in excess of their wages. Even if the gap between marginal revenue productivity and wage is not sufficient to yield an attractive return on the firm’s training investment, those training costs- once incurred-are “sunk.” While the firm might wish it had not invested in training, the best it can do after training is get what returns it can. Workers who are laid off clearly bring in no returns to the employer, so its incentives are to retain any worker whose marginal revenue productivity exceeds his or her wage. Of course, if the downturn causes marginal revenue productivity to still fall below the wage rate, firms do have incentives to lay off trained workers (unless they believe the downturn will be very short and do not want to take the risk that the laid-off workers will search for other employment).

The presence of employer training investments, then, offers an explanation for two phenomena we observe in the labor market. First, as a general rule, we observe that workers who are least susceptible to being laid off during recessions are the most skilled and those with the longest job tenures. ${ }^{26}$ Older and more skilled workers are those most likely to have been the objects of past employer training investments, and they therefore tend to enter recessions with larger gaps between marginal revenue product and wage. These gaps cushion any fall in marginal revenue product and provide their employers with stronger incentives to keep on employing them during the downturn. Workers who enter the recession with wages closer to marginal revenue productivity are more likely to find that the downturn causes their marginal revenue product to fall below their wage, and when this occurs, employers may find it profitable to lay them off.

Second, we observe that average labor productivity-output per labor hour-falls in the early stages of a recession and rises during the early stages of recovery. As demand and output start to fall, firms that have invested in worker training respond by keeping their trained workers on the payroll even though their marginal productivity falls. Such “labor hoarding” causes output per worker to fall. Of course, when demand picks up again, firms can increase output without proportionately increasing their employment because, in effect, they have maintained an inventory of trained labor. In the latter situation, output per worker rises.

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON308

经济代写|劳动经济学代写劳动经济学代考|培训和培训后工资增长


考虑这样一种情况,工人的流动成本相对较低,雇主正考虑承担所有的培训成本。由于要收回投资成本,雇主将无法在培训后大幅提高工资,同时仍有投资动机。我们知道,较高的工资降低了工人辞职的可能性,因此,如果在培训后不大幅提高工资,雇主将把投资置于风险之中。受过培训的员工可能会因为一个小小的挑衅就决定辞职(例如,老板有一天心情不好,或者他们被要求加班一段时间),如果不能保证受过培训的员工会留下来,公司就不愿意进行培训投资,因为它承担了所有的成本


相反,如果一家公司的员工在培训期间拿的工资比在其他地方拿的低,那么他们就需要培训后获得更高的工资,以使公司的就业更具吸引力。然而,如果他们通过提高工资的形式获得所有提高的边际收入产品,那么发现雇佣和解雇工人相对便宜的雇主在最轻微的挑衅下解雇他们就不会有什么损失——如果他们被解雇了,他们的投资就毁了!


因此,如果劳动力市场摩擦在其他方面很小,为在职培训提供激励的最好方法是让雇主和雇员共同分担投资的成本和回报。如果员工支付部分成本,培训后的工资就会比雇主承担所有培训成本增加更多——培训后增加的工资通过减少受过培训的员工辞职的机会来保护公司的投资。雇主承担的培训成本必须通过不大幅提高培训后的工资来补偿,但这种条件有助于保护工人的投资,因为它使公司有吸引力留住他们,除非挑衅是重大的(我们将在本章后面稍微详细讨论裁员问题)。换句话说,如果雇主和雇员都分担培训的成本,并因此分享回报,如果雇佣关系在培训后结束,他们双方都有损失

经济代写|劳动经济学代写劳动经济学代考|雇主培训、投资和衰退裁员


我们已经看到,只有当培训后的边际收入生产率被预期足以高于工资,从而使投资回报具有吸引力时,雇主才会有动机投资于工人培训。假设一家公司进行了投资,但在此后的某个时刻发现,由于业务低迷(“衰退”),其员工的边际收入生产率低于预期。如果它不能因为这样或那样的原因降低工资(我们将在第14章讨论为什么工资在向下的方向可能是不灵活的),公司会解雇它的训练有素的工人吗?


一般来说,只要工人带来的收入超过他们的工资,公司就不愿意解雇工人。即使边际收入、生产率和工资之间的差距不足以为公司的培训投资带来有吸引力的回报,这些培训成本——一旦发生——就被“沉没”了。尽管该公司可能希望自己没有在培训上投资,但在培训之后,它能做的最好的事情就是尽可能地获得回报。被解雇的工人显然不会给雇主带来任何回报,因此它的动机是留住任何边际收入生产率超过其工资的工人。当然,如果经济衰退导致边际收入生产率仍然低于工资率,公司确实有解雇受过培训的工人的动机(除非他们认为经济衰退将是非常短暂的,不想冒被解雇的工人会寻找其他工作的风险)


那么,雇主培训投资的存在为我们在劳动力市场观察到的两个现象提供了解释。首先,作为一般规则,我们观察到,在经济衰退期间最不容易被解雇的工人是技术最熟练和工作年限最长的人。${ }^{26}$年龄较大和技术更熟练的工人最有可能成为过去雇主培训投资的对象,因此,他们在进入衰退时,边际收入产品和工资之间的差距更大。这些差距缓冲了边际收入产品的任何下降,并为他们的雇主提供了更强的动机,在经济低迷期间继续雇用他们。进入衰退时,工资接近边际收入生产率的工人更有可能发现,经济衰退导致他们的边际收入产品低于工资,当这种情况发生时,雇主可能会发现解雇他们是有利可图的


第二,我们观察到平均劳动生产率——每工时产出——在衰退的早期阶段下降,在复苏的早期阶段上升。当需求和产出开始下降时,那些投资于工人培训的公司做出了回应,即使他们的边际生产率下降,他们也会继续雇佣受过培训的工人。这种“劳动力囤积”导致每个工人的产量下降。当然,当需求再次回升时,企业可以在不按比例增加就业的情况下增加产量,因为实际上,它们保持了受过培训的劳动力的库存。在后一种情况下,每个工人的产出增加

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考

myassignments-help数学代考价格说明

1、客户需提供物理代考的网址,相关账户,以及课程名称,Textbook等相关资料~客服会根据作业数量和持续时间给您定价~使收费透明,让您清楚的知道您的钱花在什么地方。

2、数学代写一般每篇报价约为600—1000rmb,费用根据持续时间、周作业量、成绩要求有所浮动(持续时间越长约便宜、周作业量越多约贵、成绩要求越高越贵),报价后价格觉得合适,可以先付一周的款,我们帮你试做,满意后再继续,遇到Fail全额退款。

3、myassignments-help公司所有MATH作业代写服务支持付半款,全款,周付款,周付款一方面方便大家查阅自己的分数,一方面也方便大家资金周转,注意:每周固定周一时先预付下周的定金,不付定金不予继续做。物理代写一次性付清打9.5折。

Math作业代写、数学代写常见问题

留学生代写覆盖学科?

代写学科覆盖Math数学,经济代写,金融,计算机,生物信息,统计Statistics,Financial Engineering,Mathematical Finance,Quantitative Finance,Management Information Systems,Business Analytics,Data Science等。代写编程语言包括Python代写、Physics作业代写、物理代写、R语言代写、R代写、Matlab代写、C++代做、Java代做等。

数学作业代写会暴露客户的私密信息吗?

我们myassignments-help为了客户的信息泄露,采用的软件都是专业的防追踪的软件,保证安全隐私,绝对保密。您在我们平台订购的任何网课服务以及相关收费标准,都是公开透明,不存在任何针对性收费及差异化服务,我们随时欢迎选购的留学生朋友监督我们的服务,提出Math作业代写、数学代写修改建议。我们保障每一位客户的隐私安全。

留学生代写提供什么服务?

我们提供英语国家如美国、加拿大、英国、澳洲、新西兰、新加坡等华人留学生论文作业代写、物理代写、essay润色精修、课业辅导及网课代修代写、Quiz,Exam协助、期刊论文发表等学术服务,myassignments-help拥有的专业Math作业代写写手皆是精英学识修为精湛;实战经验丰富的学哥学姐!为你解决一切学术烦恼!

物理代考靠谱吗?

靠谱的数学代考听起来简单,但实际上不好甄别。我们能做到的靠谱,是把客户的网课当成自己的网课;把客户的作业当成自己的作业;并将这样的理念传达到全职写手和freelancer的日常培养中,坚决辞退糊弄、不守时、抄袭的写手!这就是我们要做的靠谱!

数学代考下单流程

提早与客服交流,处理你心中的顾虑。操作下单,上传你的数学代考/论文代写要求。专家结束论文,准时交给,在此过程中可与专家随时交流。后续互动批改

付款操作:我们数学代考服务正常多种支付方法,包含paypal,visa,mastercard,支付宝,union pay。下单后与专家直接互动。

售后服务:论文结束后保证完美经过turnitin查看,在线客服全天候在线为您服务。如果你觉得有需求批改的当地能够免费批改,直至您对论文满意为止。如果上交给教师后有需求批改的当地,只需求告诉您的批改要求或教师的comments,专家会据此批改。

保密服务:不需求提供真实的数学代考名字和电话号码,请提供其他牢靠的联系方法。我们有自己的工作准则,不会泄露您的个人信息。

myassignments-help擅长领域包含但不是全部:

myassignments-help服务请添加我们官网的客服或者微信/QQ,我们的服务覆盖:Assignment代写、Business商科代写、CS代考、Economics经济学代写、Essay代写、Finance金融代写、Math数学代写、report代写、R语言代考、Statistics统计学代写、物理代考、作业代写、加拿大代考、加拿大统计代写、北美代写、北美作业代写、北美统计代考、商科Essay代写、商科代考、数学代考、数学代写、数学作业代写、physics作业代写、物理代写、数据分析代写、新西兰代写、澳洲Essay代写、澳洲代写、澳洲作业代写、澳洲统计代写、澳洲金融代写、留学生课业指导、经济代写、统计代写、统计作业代写、美国Essay代写、美国代考、美国数学代写、美国统计代写、英国Essay代写、英国代考、英国作业代写、英国数学代写、英国统计代写、英国金融代写、论文代写、金融代考、金融作业代写。