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经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Use of Credentials

Since firms often bear the costs of hiring and training workers, it is in their interest to make these costs as low as possible. Other things equal, firms should prefer to obtain a workforce of a given quality at the least possible cost. Similarly, they should prefer to hire workers who are fast learners, because such workers could be trained at less cost. Unfortunately, it may prove expensive for firms to extensively investigate the background of every individual who applies for a job to ascertain his or her skill level and ability to undertake training.

One way to reduce these costs is to rely on credentials, or signals, in the hiring process rather than intensively investigating the qualities of individual applicants. $.28$ For example, if, on average, college graduates are more productive than high school graduates, an employer might specify that a college degree is a requirement for the job. Rather than interviewing and testing all applicants to try to ascertain the productivity of each, the firm may simply select its new employees from the pool of applicants who meet this educational standard.

Such forms of statistical discrimination, judging individuals by group characteristics, have obvious costs. On the one hand, for example, some high school graduates may be fully qualified to work for a firm that insists on college graduates. Excluding them from the pool of potential applicants imposes costs on them (they do not get the job); however, it also imposes costs on the employer if other qualified applicants cannot be readily found. On the other hand, there may be some unproductive workers among the group of college graduates, and an employer who hires them may well suffer losses while they are employed. However, if the reduction in hiring costs that arises when signals (such as educational credentials, marital status, or age) are used is large, it may prove profitable for an employer to use them even if an occasional unsatisfactory worker sneaks through.

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Internal Labor Markets

One of the difficulties in hiring employees is that such personal attributes as dependability, motivation, honesty, and flexibility are difficult to judge from interviews, employment tests, or even the recommendations of former employers. This difficulty has led many larger firms to create an internal labor market, in which workers are hired into relatively low-level jobs and higher-level jobs are filled only from within the firm. This policy gives employers a chance to observe actual productive characteristics of the employees hired, and this information is then used to determine who stays with the firm and how fast and how high employees are promoted.

The benefits of using an internal labor market to fill vacancies are that the firm knows a lot about the people working for it. Hiring decisions for upper-level jobs in either the blue-collar or the white-collar workforces will thus offer few surprises to the firm. The costs of using the internal labor market are associated with the restriction of competition for the upper-level jobs to those in the firm. Those in the firm may not be the best employees available, but they are the only ones the firm considers for these jobs. Firms most likely to decide that the benefits of using an internal labor market outweigh the costs are those whose upper-level workers must have a lot of firm-specific knowledge and training that can best be attained by on-the-job learning over the years. $\frac{29}{2}$

As noted earlier, firms that pay for training will want to ensure that they obtain employees who can learn quickly and will remain with them long enough for the training costs to be recouped through the post-training surplus. For these firms, the internal labor market offers two attractions. First, it allows the firm to observe workers on the job and thus make better decisions about which workers will be the recipients of later, perhaps very expensive, training. Second, the internal labor market tends to foster an attachment to the firm by its employees. They know that they have an inside track on upper-level vacancies because outsiders will not be considered. If they quit the firm, they would lose this privileged position. They are thus motivated to become long-term employees of the firm. The full implications of internal labor markets for wage policies within the firm will be discussed in chapter 11.

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON045

经济代写|劳动经济学代写劳动经济学代考|凭据的使用


由于公司通常要承担雇用和培训工人的成本,因此尽可能降低这些成本符合公司的利益。在其他条件相同的情况下,企业应该更愿意以尽可能低的成本获得具有一定质量的劳动力。同样,他们应该更喜欢雇佣学习能力强的工人,因为这样的工人可以以更低的成本接受培训。不幸的是,公司要广泛调查每一个求职者的背景,以确定他或她的技能水平和接受培训的能力,这可能是昂贵的


减少这些成本的一个方法是在招聘过程中依赖证书或信号,而不是集中调查个别申请人的素质。$.28$例如,如果平均而言,大学毕业生比高中毕业生更有生产力,雇主可能会指定大学学位是该工作的必要条件。与其面试和测试所有的应聘者以确定每个人的生产力,公司可能会简单地从符合这一教育标准的求职者中挑选新员工


这种以群体特征来判断个人的统计歧视形式有明显的代价。一方面,例如,一些高中毕业生可能完全有资格为一家坚持雇佣大学毕业生的公司工作。将他们排除在潜在申请者之外会增加他们的成本(他们得不到这份工作);然而,如果不能立即找到其他合格的申请人,也会给雇主增加成本。另一方面,在大学毕业生群体中可能有一些生产力低下的工人,雇用他们的雇主很可能在他们被雇用期间遭受损失。然而,如果使用信号(如教育学历、婚姻状况或年龄)可以大幅降低雇佣成本,那么即使偶尔有不满意的员工溜进来,雇主使用这些信号也可能是有利可图的

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|内部劳动力市场


雇佣员工的困难之一是,诸如可靠性、积极性、诚实和灵活性等个人品质很难从面试、就业测试,甚至前雇主的推荐信中判断出来。这种困难导致许多较大的公司创建了一个内部劳动力市场,在这个市场中,工人被雇用到相对较低的职位,而更高级别的职位只能从公司内部填补。这一政策使雇主有机会观察所雇用员工的实际生产特点,然后这些信息被用来决定谁会留在公司,以及员工升职的速度和级别


使用内部劳动力市场来填补空缺的好处是,公司对为它工作的人有很多了解。因此,无论是蓝领还是白领,招聘高层职位的决定几乎不会让公司感到意外。利用内部劳动力市场的成本与企业内部人员竞争高层职位的限制有关。公司里的那些人可能不是最好的员工,但他们是公司考虑的唯一人选。那些认为使用内部劳动力市场的收益大于成本的企业,其高层员工必须拥有大量公司特有的知识和培训,而这些知识和培训最好通过多年的在职学习获得。$\frac{29}{2}$


如前所述,支付培训费用的公司将希望确保他们获得的员工能够快速学习,并在他们那里工作足够长的时间,以便通过培训后的盈余来收回培训成本。对这些公司来说,内部劳动力市场有两个吸引力。首先,它允许公司观察工作中的工人,从而更好地决定哪些工人将接受以后可能非常昂贵的培训。第二,内部劳动力市场倾向于培养员工对公司的依恋。他们知道自己在高层职位空缺上有优势,因为外界人士不会被考虑在内。如果他们离开公司,就会失去这个特权职位。因此,他们被激励成为公司的长期员工。内部劳动力市场对公司内部工资政策的全部影响将在第11章中讨论

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考

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