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经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Training Decision by Employers

Consider an employer who has just hired a new employee. If the employer decides to bear the cost of training this worker, it will incur the explicit and implicit training costs discussed earlier-including, of course, the forgone output of the worker being trained. Thus, in the training period, the employer is likely to be bearing costs on behalf of this new worker that are greater than the worker’s marginal revenue product. Under what conditions would an employer be willing to undertake this kind of investment?

As with any investment, an employer that bears net costs during the training period would only do so if it believes that it can collect returns on that investment after training. It is the prospect of increased employee productivity that motivates an employer to offer training, but the only way the employer can make a return on its investment is to “keep” some of that added post-training revenue by not giving all of it to the worker in the form of a wage increase.

Put succinctly. for a firm to invest in training. two conditions must be met. First, the training that employees receive must increase their marginal revenue productivity more than it increases their wage. Second, the employees must stay with the employer long enough for the employer to receive the required returns (obviously, the longer the employees stay with the firm, other things equal, the more profitable the investment will be).

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Types of Training

At the extremes, there are two types of training that employers can provide. General training teaches workers skills that can be used to enhance their productivity with many employers; learning how to speak English, use a word-processing program, drive a truck, or create websites are examples of general training. At the other end of the spectrum is specific training, which teaches workers skills that increase their productivity only with the employer providing the training. Examples of specific training include teaching workers how to use a machine unique to their workplace or orienting them to particular procedures and people they will need to deal with in various circumstances they will encounter at work.

General Training Paying for general training can be a rather risky investment for an employer, for if the employer tries to keep post-training wage increases below increases in marginal revenue productivity, trained workers might leave. Because general training can raise productivity with other employers too, trained workers may have incentives to look for higher wage offers from employers that have no training costs to recoup!

Thus, theory suggests that if employee mobility costs are not very great, employers will be deterred from investing in general training. The likelihood of making back their required returns is low, because the gap between marginal revenue product and the posttraining wage might not be sufficiently great, or the expected tenure of the trained workers with the firms sufficiently long, to recoup their investment costs. When workermobility costs are low, firms either will not provide the training or will require the employees to pay for it by offering a very low (or, in the case of some interns, a zero) wage rate during the training period. Research finds, however, that firms often do invest in general training, a fact that suggests worker mobility among firms is costly-and that the labor market is therefore characterized by monopsonistic conditions. A related possibility is that, while the skills taught to employees are general in nature, the combinations of general skills required by particular employers vary markedly, and this variability reduces the transferability of skills among employers. $23$

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECO433

经济代写|劳动经济学代写劳动经济学代考|雇主的培训决定


试想一下,一个雇主刚刚雇佣了一个新员工。如果雇主决定承担这名工人的培训成本,它将产生前面讨论过的显性和隐性培训成本——当然,包括被培训工人放弃的产出。因此,在培训期间,雇主很可能代表新工人承担的成本大于工人的边际收入产品。雇主在什么情况下会愿意进行这类投资?


与任何投资一样,在培训期间承担净成本的雇主只有在相信在培训后可以从投资中获得回报的情况下才会这样做。正是对提高员工生产力的预期促使雇主提供培训,但雇主能够从其投资中获得回报的唯一方法是“保留”培训后增加的部分收入,而不是以加薪的形式全部给员工

简练地说。公司在培训上的投资。必须满足两个条件。首先,员工接受的培训必须提高他们的边际收入生产率,而不是提高他们的工资。第二,雇员必须为雇主工作足够长的时间,以便雇主获得所需的回报(显然,在其他条件相同的情况下,雇员在公司工作的时间越长,投资的利润就越高)

经济代写|劳动经济学代写劳动经济学代考|培训类型

在极端情况下,雇主可以提供两种类型的培训。一般培训教给工人技能,可以用来提高他们在许多雇主面前的生产力;学习如何说英语,使用文字处理程序,驾驶卡车,或者创建网站都是一般训练的例子。另一个极端是专门的培训,它教给工人技能,只有在雇主提供培训的情况下才能提高他们的生产力。具体培训的例子包括教工人如何使用他们工作场所特有的机器,或使他们了解在工作中遇到的各种情况下需要处理的特定程序和人员 对雇主来说,支付一般培训费用可能是一项相当冒险的投资,因为如果雇主试图将培训后的工资增长保持在边际收入生产率增长以下,受过培训的工人可能会离开。因为一般的培训也可以提高与其他雇主的工作效率,受过培训的员工可能会有动机从没有培训成本可收回的雇主那里寻找更高的工资!


因此,理论表明,如果员工流动成本不是很大,雇主就不会在一般培训上投资。收回他们要求的回报的可能性很低,因为边际收入产品和培训后工资之间的差距可能不够大,或者受过培训的工人在公司的预期任期可能不够长,以收回他们的投资成本。当员工流动成本较低时,公司要么不提供培训,要么要求员工在培训期间支付极低的工资(对一些实习生来说,零工资)来支付培训费用。然而,研究发现,企业通常会在一般培训上进行投资,这一事实表明,企业之间的工人流动是昂贵的,因此劳动力市场的特点是垄断条件。一种相关的可能性是,虽然教给员工的技能在本质上是一般的,但特定雇主所需要的一般技能的组合差异很大,这种差异性降低了技能在雇主之间的可转移性。$23$

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考

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