相信许多留学生对数学代考都不陌生,国外许多大学都引进了网课的学习模式。网课学业有利有弊,学生不需要到固定的教室学习,只需要登录相应的网站研讨线上课程即可。但也正是其便利性,线上课程的数量往往比正常课程多得多。留学生课业深重,时刻名贵,既要学习知识,又要结束多种类型的课堂作业,physics作业代写,物理代写,论文写作等;网课考试很大程度增加了他们的负担。所以,您要是有这方面的困扰,不要犹疑,订购myassignments-help代考渠道的数学代考服务,价格合理,给你前所未有的学习体会。

我们的数学代考服务适用于那些对课程结束没有掌握,或许没有满足的时刻结束网课的同学。高度匹配专业科目,按需结束您的网课考试、数学代写需求。担保买卖支持,100%退款保证,免费赠送Turnitin检测报告。myassignments-help的Math作业代写服务,是你留学路上忠实可靠的小帮手!


经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Maximizing Monopoly Profits

As explained earlier in footnote 2 and the surrounding text, product-market monopolies are subject to the market demand curve for their output, and they therefore do not take output price as given. They can expand their sales only by reducing product price, which means that their marginal revenue $(M R)$ from an extra unit of output is less than product price $(P)$. Using the general definition of marginal revenue product in equation (3.3a), and applying the usual profit-maximizing criteria outlined in equation (3.4) to a monopoly that searches for workers in a competitive lahor market (so that $M F_L=W$ ), the monopolist would hire workers until its marginal revenue product of labor $\left(M R P_L\right)$ equals the wage rate:
$$
M R P_L=M R \cdot M P_L=W(3.9)
$$
Now we can express the demand for labor in the short run in terms of the real wage by dividing equation (3.9) by the firm’s product price, $P$, to obtain

Since marginal revenue is always less than a monopoly’s product price, the ratio $M R / P$ in equation (3.10) is less than one. Therefore, the labor demand curve for a firm that has monopoly power in the output market will lie below and to the left of the labor demand curve for an otherwise identical firm that takes product price as given. Put another way, just as the level of profit-maximizing output is lower under monopoly than it is under competition, other things equal, so is the level of employment.

The wage rates that monopolies pay, however, are not necessarily different from competitive levels even though employment levels are. An employer with a productmarket monopoly may still be a very small part of the market for a particular kind of employee and thus be a price taker in the labor market. For example, a local utility company might have a product-market monopoly, but it would have to compete with all other firms to hire clerks and thus would have to pay the going wage.

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Employment Subsidies as a Device to Help the Poor

The opposite of a payroll tax on employers is a government subsidy of employers’ payrolls. In Eigure 3.4, for example, if instead of taxing each hour of labor by $X$ the government paid the employer $X$, the market labor demand curve would shift upward by a vertical distance of $X$. This upward movement of the demand curve would create pressures to increase employment and the wages received by employees; as with a payroll tax, whether the eventual effects would be felt more on employment or on wage rates depends on the shape of the labor market supply curve.
(Students should test their understanding in this area by drawing labor demand curves that reflect a new payroll subsidy of $X$ per hour and then analyzing the effects on employment and employee wages with market supply curves that are, alternatively, upward-sloping and vertical. Hint: The outcomes should be those that would be obtained if demand curve $D_1$ in Figures $3.4$ and $3.5$ were shifted by the subsidy to curve $D_0$.)

Payroll subsidies to employers can take many forms. They can be in the form of cash payments, as implied by the above hypothetical example, or they can be in the form of tax credits. These credits might directly reduce a firm’s payroll-tax rate or they might reduce some other tax by an amount proportional to the number of labor hours hired; in either case, the credit has the effect of reducing the cost of hiring labor. Below, we first discuss programs that directly subsidize hiring, and then turn to the potential Hiring Subsidy Programs Programs that subsidize hiring can apply to a firm’s employment level, to any new employees hired after a certain date (even if they just replace workers who have left), or only to new hires that serve to increase the firm’s level of employment. Finally, subsidies can be either general or selective. A general subsidy is not conditional on the characteristics of the people hired, whereas a selective, or targeted, plan makes the subsidy conditional on hiring people from certain target groups (such as the disadvantaged).

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECO118

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Maximizing Monopoly Profits

正如前面脚注 2 和周围文本中所解释的,产品市场垄断受制于其产出的市场需求曲线,因此它们不会将产 出价格视为给定。他们只能通过降低产品价格来扩大销售额,这意味着他们的边际收入 $(M R)$ 多出一单位 的产量低于产品价格 $(P)$. 使用方程 (3.3a) 中边际收益产品的一般定义,并将方程 (3.4) 中概述的通常的 利润最大化标准应用于在竞争性拉合尔市场中寻找工人的垄断企业 (因此 $M F_L=W$ ),垄断者将雇佣工 人,直到其劳动的边际收益产品 $\left(M R P_L\right)$ 等于工资率:
$$
M R P_L=M R \cdot M P_L=W(3.9)
$$
现在我们可以用实际工资来表示短期内对劳动力的需求,用公式 (3.9) 除以公司的产品价格, $P$ ,获得
由于边际收益总是小于垄断者的产品价格,所以该比率 $M R / P$ 在等式 (3.10) 中小于一。因此,在产出市 场上具有垄断权的企业的劳动力需求曲线将位于将产品价格视为给定的其他方面相同的企业的劳动力需求 曲线的下方和左侧。换句话说,正如在垄断条件下利润最大化的产出水平低于在竞争条件下的水平,在其 他条件相同的情况下,就业水平也是如此。
然而,即使就业水平不同,垄断企业支付的工资率也不一定不同于竞争水平。拥有产品市场垄断地位的雇 主对于特定类型的雇员来说可能仍然是市场的一小部分,因此是劳动力市场的价格接受者。例如,当地的 公用事业公司可能垄断了产品市场,但它必须与所有其他公司竞争雇用文员,因此必须支付现行工资。

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Employment Subsidies as a Device to Help the Poor

对雇主征收工资税的反面是政府对雇主工资的补贴。例如,在 Eigure 3.4 中,如果不是对每小时的劳动征税X政府支付给雇主X,市场劳动力需求曲线将向上移动一个垂直距离X. 需求曲线的这种向上移动将产生增加就业和雇员工资的压力;与工资税一样,最终影响是对就业还是对工资率的影响更大,取决于劳动力市场供给曲线的形状。
(学生应该通过绘制反映新的工资补贴的劳动力需求曲线来测试他们对这一领域的理解。X每小时,然后使用向上倾斜和垂直的市场供给曲线分析对就业和雇员工资的影响。提示:结果应该是如果需求曲线会获得的结果D1在图中3.4和3.5美元在和r和sH一世F吨和db是吨H和s在bs一世d是吨○C在r在和D_0$。)

对雇主的工资补贴可以采取多种形式。正如上述假设示例所暗示的,它们可以是现金支付的形式,也可以是税收抵免的形式。这些抵免额可能会直接降低公司的工资税税率,或者可能会按与雇用的工时数成正比的数量减少其他税收;在任何一种情况下,信贷都具有降低雇用劳动力成本的效果。下面,我们首先讨论直接补贴招聘的计划,然后转向潜在的招聘补贴计划。左),或仅适用于有助于提高公司就业水平的新员工。最后,补贴可以是一般性的,也可以是选择性的。

经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考

myassignments-help数学代考价格说明

1、客户需提供物理代考的网址,相关账户,以及课程名称,Textbook等相关资料~客服会根据作业数量和持续时间给您定价~使收费透明,让您清楚的知道您的钱花在什么地方。

2、数学代写一般每篇报价约为600—1000rmb,费用根据持续时间、周作业量、成绩要求有所浮动(持续时间越长约便宜、周作业量越多约贵、成绩要求越高越贵),报价后价格觉得合适,可以先付一周的款,我们帮你试做,满意后再继续,遇到Fail全额退款。

3、myassignments-help公司所有MATH作业代写服务支持付半款,全款,周付款,周付款一方面方便大家查阅自己的分数,一方面也方便大家资金周转,注意:每周固定周一时先预付下周的定金,不付定金不予继续做。物理代写一次性付清打9.5折。

Math作业代写、数学代写常见问题

留学生代写覆盖学科?

代写学科覆盖Math数学,经济代写,金融,计算机,生物信息,统计Statistics,Financial Engineering,Mathematical Finance,Quantitative Finance,Management Information Systems,Business Analytics,Data Science等。代写编程语言包括Python代写、Physics作业代写、物理代写、R语言代写、R代写、Matlab代写、C++代做、Java代做等。

数学作业代写会暴露客户的私密信息吗?

我们myassignments-help为了客户的信息泄露,采用的软件都是专业的防追踪的软件,保证安全隐私,绝对保密。您在我们平台订购的任何网课服务以及相关收费标准,都是公开透明,不存在任何针对性收费及差异化服务,我们随时欢迎选购的留学生朋友监督我们的服务,提出Math作业代写、数学代写修改建议。我们保障每一位客户的隐私安全。

留学生代写提供什么服务?

我们提供英语国家如美国、加拿大、英国、澳洲、新西兰、新加坡等华人留学生论文作业代写、物理代写、essay润色精修、课业辅导及网课代修代写、Quiz,Exam协助、期刊论文发表等学术服务,myassignments-help拥有的专业Math作业代写写手皆是精英学识修为精湛;实战经验丰富的学哥学姐!为你解决一切学术烦恼!

物理代考靠谱吗?

靠谱的数学代考听起来简单,但实际上不好甄别。我们能做到的靠谱,是把客户的网课当成自己的网课;把客户的作业当成自己的作业;并将这样的理念传达到全职写手和freelancer的日常培养中,坚决辞退糊弄、不守时、抄袭的写手!这就是我们要做的靠谱!

数学代考下单流程

提早与客服交流,处理你心中的顾虑。操作下单,上传你的数学代考/论文代写要求。专家结束论文,准时交给,在此过程中可与专家随时交流。后续互动批改

付款操作:我们数学代考服务正常多种支付方法,包含paypal,visa,mastercard,支付宝,union pay。下单后与专家直接互动。

售后服务:论文结束后保证完美经过turnitin查看,在线客服全天候在线为您服务。如果你觉得有需求批改的当地能够免费批改,直至您对论文满意为止。如果上交给教师后有需求批改的当地,只需求告诉您的批改要求或教师的comments,专家会据此批改。

保密服务:不需求提供真实的数学代考名字和电话号码,请提供其他牢靠的联系方法。我们有自己的工作准则,不会泄露您的个人信息。

myassignments-help擅长领域包含但不是全部:

myassignments-help服务请添加我们官网的客服或者微信/QQ,我们的服务覆盖:Assignment代写、Business商科代写、CS代考、Economics经济学代写、Essay代写、Finance金融代写、Math数学代写、report代写、R语言代考、Statistics统计学代写、物理代考、作业代写、加拿大代考、加拿大统计代写、北美代写、北美作业代写、北美统计代考、商科Essay代写、商科代考、数学代考、数学代写、数学作业代写、physics作业代写、物理代写、数据分析代写、新西兰代写、澳洲Essay代写、澳洲代写、澳洲作业代写、澳洲统计代写、澳洲金融代写、留学生课业指导、经济代写、统计代写、统计作业代写、美国Essay代写、美国代考、美国数学代写、美国统计代写、英国Essay代写、英国代考、英国作业代写、英国数学代写、英国统计代写、英国金融代写、论文代写、金融代考、金融作业代写。