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电子工程代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考|The Epicyclic Hypothesis—Epicycle and Deferent

According to Ptolemy’s theory, the planets should move in circular orbits around the Earth. However, more precise astronomical observations showed a clear deviation from this ideal conception. Thus, in the “Amalgest” [18], Ptolemy used the epicyclic hypothesis of two simultaneous circular motions to describe a planetary orbit around the Earth. The planet rotates around a small circular orbit (epicycle) whose center moves on a larger circular orbit (deferent). Copernicus in his revolutionary work “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” (“On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”)[19], moved the sun into the center of the system, but still used the epicyclic hypothesis to describe the track of the stars. With opposite directions of rotation on epicycle and deferent, an ellipse can thus also be represented with some effort. Only with Kepler’s 1609 in the “Astronomia Nova” [20, 21] presented idea of an elliptical planetary orbit could be dispensed with the epicycle theory.

In the following, Gershon develops a detailed description of the darkroom, of which only the “main sentence” is reproduced here: (from [17], pp. 226-227) When rays from the sun, moon, or other sources of light enter through any window or hole and strike an object behind the aforesaid opening, the image of the same is on all sides wider than the aperture according to the angle formed by the radius of the luminous body at the entrance.
A little later in the text follow two observations worth mentioning:
…and the smaller the vpening in the window, the mone atcurate will be the result of the measurement Further, it follows that when the eclipse appears on one side of the luminous body, the arch is on the opposite side of the image on the screen. For it is clear from the foregoing proof that the lower half of the celestial body sends light to the upper part of the image, and always the opposite side of the celestial body gives rise to the opposite part of the image.

电子工程代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考|Magic Lantern and Fright Lamp

The reversal of the light path turns the darkroom into a magic lamp. The difficulty is really only due to the fact that the image to be projected must have a very high brightness in order to still be seen with the naked eye after a pinhole. It is not surprising that projection lanterns only came into the limelight when the manufacture of lenses and mirrors also reached a quality sufficient to focus the light and bright lamps could be produced. Equally unsurprising is the fact that those researchers who were engaged in the study of optics and the camera obscura were also among the fathers of the magic lantern.

An early depiction of the magic lantern (ca. 1420) is found in a manuscript by Johannes de Fontana in his collection Bellicorum instrumentorum liber cum figuris [51]. On the last page, a lady is depicted holding a lantern (Fig. 3.15). In the original to the right, the projection of the small drawing from inside the lantern is shown and probably represents an inhabitant of Hell. The title of the drawing is therefore “Nocturnal Apparition to the Horror of the Beholder” (Apparentia nocturna ad terrorem videntium). To this the coded text says: “You know the method with the lantern and have seen with your own eyes [the lantern, author’s note] made by myself according to my own idea.,”20 The lantern is shown again enlarged in greyscale on the left side of the picture in Fig. 3.15. It is easy to see in the enlargement that Johannes de Fontana has correctly reproduced the projected motif inside the lantern at a smaller scale. This could indicate that Fontana had practical experience in using the lantern and had actually made it himself.

The “Uomo universale”21 Alberti described in 1436 in his work “Della pittura” [54] not only the use of perspective. As Tiraboschi tells us in his monumental work “Storia della Letteratura Italiana” $\lfloor 55\rfloor$, he possibly used something similar to a peep-box (“Camera ottica”, an optical chamber) to represent his perspective pictures. One looked through a small hole in this box at the painted image of a scene, which must have seemed very realistic in perception (from [55], p. 368, own translation):
He wrote (Alberti) some books on the art of painting, and with this art he created unheard-of works that were incredible to those who saw them. He had enclosed them in a small box and showed them through a small hole. You would have seen there high mountains, vast provinces around the sea, and more from distant lands that you can hardly see with your own eyes. These things were shown by him, and they were such that simple men and scholars thought they saw real things, not painted picturss.

电子工程代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考|ISMAR2022

电子工程代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考|The Epicyclic Hypothesis—Epicycle and Deferent

根据托勒密的理论,行星应该在环绕地球的圆形轨道上运行。然而,更精确的天文观测显示出与这一理想概念的明显偏差。因此,在“Amalgest”[18] 中,托勒密使用了两个同时圆周运动的行星假设来描述围绕地球的行星轨道。这颗行星围绕一个小的圆形轨道(本轮)旋转,其中心在一个更大的圆形轨道(顺行)上移动。哥白尼在他的革命著作《天体旋转》(《论天体的旋转》)[19]中,将太阳移到了系统的中心,但仍然使用周转假说来描述恒星的运行轨迹。因此,在本轮和异日轮的旋转方向相反的情况下,椭圆也可以通过一些努力来表示。

在下文中,Gershon 对暗室进行了详细描述,此处仅复制了“主要句子”:(来自 [17],第 226-227 页)当来自太阳、月亮或其他光源的光线时通过任何窗户或孔洞进入,并在上述开口后面撞击物体,其图像的四面八方都比开口处的发光体半径所形成的角度宽。
稍后在文本中遵循两个值得一提的观察结果:
…而且窗口中的 vpening 越小,测量结果就越精确 此外,当日食出现在发光体的一侧时,拱形在屏幕上图像的另一侧. 因为从前面的证明可以清楚地看出,天体的下半部分向图像的上半部分发出光线,而天体的另一侧总是会产生图像的对面部分。

电子工程代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考|Magic Lantern and Fright Lamp

光路的逆转将暗室变成了神灯。困难实际上只是因为要投影的图像必须具有非常高的亮度才能在针孔后仍然用肉眼看到。不足为奇的是,只有当透镜和镜子的制造质量也达到足以聚焦光线并可以生产出明亮的灯具时,投影灯才成为众人瞩目的焦点。同样不足为奇的是,那些从事光学和暗箱研究的研究人员也是魔灯之父之一。

Johannes de Fontana 在他的收藏 Bellicorum instrumentorum liber cum figuris [51] 的手稿中发现了对魔法灯笼(约 1420 年)的早期描述。最后一页描绘了一位女士手持灯笼(图 3.15)。在右边的原图中,显示了从灯笼内部投影的小图,可能代表地狱的居民。因此,这幅画的标题是“对旁观者的恐惧的夜幻影”(Apparentia nocturna ad trereem videntium)。对此,编码文本说:“你知道灯笼的方法,并且亲眼看到了我按照自己的想法制作的[灯笼,作者注]。”20 灯笼再次以灰度放大显示图 3.15 中图片的左侧。从放大图中很容易看出,约翰内斯·德·丰塔纳以较小的比例正确地再现了灯笼内的投影图案。这可能表明丰塔纳有使用灯笼的实际经验,并且实际上是自己制作的。

1436 年阿尔贝蒂在他的作品“绘画”[54] 中描述的“普世人”21 不仅使用了透视。正如蒂拉博斯基在他的巨著《意大利文学史》中告诉我们的⌊55⌋,他可能使用类似于窥视盒(“Camera ottica”,光学室)的东西来表示他的透视图。一个人通过这个盒子上的一个小洞看到了一个场景的绘画图像,这在感知上一定看起来非常逼真(来自 [55],第 368 页,自己的翻译):
他(阿尔贝蒂)写了一些关于艺术的书绘画,他用这种艺术创作了闻所未闻的作品,让那些看到它们的人难以置信。他把它们放在一个小盒子里,然后从一个小洞里拿出来。你会看到那里的高山,大海周围的广阔省份,以及你几乎无法亲眼看到的遥远的土地。这些东西都是他展示出来的,让普通人学者以为看到的是实物,而不是画出来的。

电子工程代写|虚拟现实代写Virtual Reality代考

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