# 电子工程代写|软件项目作业代写Software Project代考|DAT251

## 电子工程代写|软件项目作业代写Software Project代考|Conclusions and Future Research Directions

It is widely recognised that the competitiveness of software companies greatly depends on the ability of their project managers to carry out a reliable and accurate software size estimation. Among the approaches proposed to size software FSM methods are widely applied in the industry since size estimation can be obtained early, based on the functionality provided to the users. In this chapter, we have analysed and discussed the main aspects of the use of the COSMIC method to measure distributed applications in cloud environments. In the discussion, we have considered the three distinct provision models of the cloud computing stack: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). Furthermore, we have analysed specific concepts for distributed applications such as orchestrations and load balancing of several components that act together to realise the required functionality and to ensure critical non-functional requirements (e.g., scalability, reliability).

It is clear that the effort for a software project and its related cost depend on both functional and non-functional aspects. On the basis of this consideration, in the last years, some approaches have been defined to measure the non-functional requirements of software systems to complement the information given by FSM methods. One of the most interesting examples is the Software Non-functional Assessment Process (SNAP) [20] devised by the IFPUG community. The aim of IFPUG is to capture functional aspects through the use of FPA and the non-functional ones with SNAP. The SNAP model consists of four categories and 14 subcategories to measure the non-functional requirements. Non-functional requirements are mapped to the relevant subcategories, and each subcategory is sized, and the size of a requirement is the sum of the sizes of its subcategories. These sizes are then summed to give the measure of the non-functional size of the software application. At the present, no empirical study demonstrating the effectiveness of SNAP is reported in the literature. Moreover, one of the main challenges is to understand which non-functional requirements do not give rise to functional components that are measured by FSM methods. In particular, there is the need to understand these aspects for the cloud environment also providing a specific SNAP approach. It is our intention to fill this gap as future work, in order to give a measure of the non-functional requirements of distributed applications.

Furthermore, empirical studies, possibly in the context of software companies, should be carried out measuring distributed applications, applying both COSMIC and SNAP and assessing the predictive accuracy of the built effort estimation models.

## 电子工程代写|软件项目作业代写Software Project代考|Large-Scale Systems

By definition, large-scale defense projects are large in terms of scale. Managing large-scale projects is difficult for civilian projects, and it is even more challenging within defense context. This characteristic also leads to certain project characteristics such as high cost, need for long schedules, and involvement of a high number of stakeholders. The development of large-scale systems starts with adoption and disciplined execution of systems engineering principles and processes [22]. Largescale projects require rigorous project management, good risk management, best systems engineering practices, experienced managers, skilled practitioners, wellcrafted system architectures, a multi-aspect viewpoint, high skill in problem solving, etc.

Today, defense systems are sôftware intennsive [4,5, 25]. In 1974, the F-16A had 135,000 source lines of code (SLOC). In 2012, operational and support software of F-35 consisted of 24 million SLOC [5]. The challenges of software development have dominated the challenges of defense system developments. As the project scale goes up, the rate of software project success falls dramatically [10,16]. The cancellation rate for military software with a size of 1000 function points (FPs) is $10 \%$ [10]. The cancellation rate is $33 \%$ when the size of the military software reaches to 100,000 FPs [10]. Furthermore, productivity significantly lowers as the scale increases in military software [10].

In his seminal paper [15], David Parnas argued why Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) system software will be untrustworthy. Most of the supporting arguments revolve around software-related problems in a large-scale system development effort. The scale is increasing in military systems [17]. Future defense needs, such as information dominance, will require systems of systems that will turn into “ultra-large-scale systems” primarily based on software [18]. The sheer scale in these projects will have unprecedented effects on many aspects of system development practices [18].

## 电子工程代写|软件项目作业代写Software Project代考|Large-Scale Systems

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